1.5Justification as it will help clients in

1.5Justification
of the Project

Online Hotel Management and
Reservation System is a system meant to enable clients gets desired information
directly from the designed website. The system will allow them to get
information about their desired hotels in Thika town such as the available
rooms, the cost, location, facilities available and the specifications of a
given room in the hotel.

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The system will also help the
hotel managers in keeping track of the hotel records which in turn will be
useful in drafting the hotel’s budgets. It will also help the mangers know the
most preferred hotels in the city by evaluating various statistics and this
will help them to update their services and facilities in order to attract as
many customers as well. The overall effect of this feature will be overall
improvement of accommodation facilities in Thika town due to competition.  In brief the system will be double edged as
it will help clients in reserving rooms at the comfort of their home as well as
assist the hotel managers in management of the hotel activities.

 

1.6Scope

Online
Hotel Management and Reservation System is intended to help the hotel
management to improve on their current system. It is a system whereby all the
selected will have individual websites all linked together to form a user
friendly interface where customers can easily view and make reservations in
hotels in an online platform. The system will contain a registration module
which will allow every level of access to clients for registration and to hotel
managers for system administration.

1.7limitations

One
of the major limitation is that after the client decides to cancel a
reservation, there is no way their money will be refunded. This will tend to
discourage clients with no absolute decisions made. The other limitation will
be lack of first-hand knowledge on online booking. Users with insufficient
knowledge about online booking will tend to experience some difficulties in
their interaction with the system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

The application of
the Internet in the business world has become a major trend in practice and
generated a hot stream of research in the recent literature.  The 
Internet,  as  a 
collection  of  interconnected  computer 
networks,  provides  free exchanging  of 
information.  Over  400 
million  of  computers 
or  more  than 
400,000  networks  worldwide 
today  are communicating with each
other (Napier, Judd, Rivers, and Wagner, 2001). As such, the Internet has been
becoming a powerful channel for business marketing and communication (Palmer,
1999), and for new business opportunities – as it is often called as “e-business”
or “e-commerce” today (Schneider & Perry, 2001). 

This new e-business
or e-commerce virtual marketplace 
allows  small  companies 
competing  with  business 
giants  by  just 
having  a  better 
web  presentation  of 
their products/services. 
Under  the  same  wave,  online 
customers  can  enjoy 
a  wider  choice 
of  products  or 
services,  more competitive
prices, and being able to buy their favourite items/services from the sellers
located thousands miles away. It provides communication between consumers and
companies and through electronic data interchange (EDI), buyers and sellers can
exchange standard business transactions such as invoices or purchase orders
with remarkable ease.

The  hotel 
industry  is  certainly 
full  aware  of 
this  trend  and 
fully  willing  to 
contribute  its  share 
in  this  effort. 
In fact, the industry has realized that during those early forays into
cyberspace, the industry didn’t view e -booking strategically (many hotels
simply considered online room bookings at the time as a way to pick up
additional business by selling distressed inventory through those online travel
agencies), and handed over too much control of inventory and pricing to those
third party online travel agencies. Now 
the  industry  is 
in  the  unenviable 
position  of  trying 
to  take  back 
the  reins  after 
early shopping patterns have been established. While the pressure to
sell their inventory rooms online will be continuing, the industry  has 
developed  its  new 
online  strategy  striving 
to  get  a 
better  grip  on 
this  emerging  marketing.

Fernandez, E, & Yuan, X,
(1999). An analysis Pattern for Reservation and Use of Reusable Entities. An
analysis pattern for reservation and used of reusable Entities is an article
that focuses on the pattern for making a reservation for hotel. This article is
written by Fernandez and Yuan. First it goes through the problem then solution,
requirements and consequences. The article is supported with some diagrams that
make the understanding more clear.

The problem occurs when the
user’s needs to reserve a hotel room, for that reason the system needs a table
for hotel rooms. In order to avoid duplicated reservation for same room the
system needs a table for available rooms. Also, the user may needs to review the
reservation so the system has a table for reservation. 

In the solution part the article first discussed the
used case for requirements. The first use case is making reservation, in this
case the user make research for available demand by using date. When the demand
which is room is available the user can do reservation. The second use case is
use a reserved entity. In this case when the usage of reservation is done, the
room is recorded as available again. The third use case is modifying the
reservation. The fourth use case is cancelling the reservation.

This system can be used for other reservation like
seats for flight. Also, this system can record the history
of reservation. This system is similar to my system in making reservation and
history but differs in environment. This system is an online system and the
guests is the one who is responsible reservation while my system local system
and the reception is one who is responsible of reservation.

Online 
system  has  evolved 
to  be  a 
cornerstone  in  support 
of  computer  software 
users  of  all 
kinds.  It  is 
an  electronic interactive  system 
that  delivers  information  
to  users  via 
telephone  lines  to 
personal  computers  (PCs) 
or  via  cables 
to terminals.  Such  a 
service  provides  information, 
usually  in  text 
form,  about  news, 
education,  business,  entertainment, shopping,  and 
more.  Some also provide message
services and graphic and audio information. Online hotel reservations are
becoming a very popular method for booking hotel rooms. Travellers can book
rooms from home by using online security to protect their privacy and financial
information and by using several online travel agents to compare prices and
facilities at different hotels. People can book directly on an individual
hotel’s website. An increasing number of hotels are building their own websites
to allow them to market their hotels directly to consumers. Non franchise chain
hotels require a “booking engine” application to be attached to their website to
permit people to book rooms in real time. 
One  advantage  of 
booking  with  the 
hotel  directly  is  the  use 
of  the  hotel’s 
full  cancellation  policy 
as  well  as  not
needing a deposit in most situations. Hotel Reservation Software (HORES) is an
easy to use arrangement that enables guests to reserve rooms directly via the
internet once they have confirmed availability of rooms. OHMRS is an efficient
and brilliant software, yet it is easy and uncomplicated to use. OHMRS grants
complete authority and power on hotels or motel room booking over the internet.
This entails that one can accumulate all guest payments; enter own  room 
descriptions,  facilities,  rates 
and  allocations  into 
the  Reservation  System. 
HORES also allows to confirm accommodation in real-time at hotel’s web
site and close the sale without more difficulties.

There are several benefits of HORES.  It makes the reservation process computerized
and thus helps one to undertake a large amount of transactions at a low cost.  It enables one to check available inventory
and complete an online booking form making the reservation process more
efficient and less time consuming. The clients can settle the room rates and
special offers at no extra cost. 

HORES assists hotel’s guests with
different payment options such as credit/debit cards. The system can track
hotel’s  performance  on  a  regular 
basis  as  all 
information  concerning  payments 
is  updated  online 
and  sent  to  the
reservation manager by means of e-mail or mobile messages.

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

Introduction

An
organized and systematic once solution is essential for all hotel and catering
institutions. Having realized the existence of the above problems, i took the
initiative of finding the performance of the current system at Imperial Hotel,
Thika. i visited Imperial Hotel and interacted with the customers, customer
service, and the management. The system used wasn’t efficient for the selected
sample of customers who lined and seemed restless due to delay of reservations.
The management also complained of low turn-up of guests within the hotel. We
gathered adequate information that gave us the push to come up with the online
hotel reservation and management system.

 

 

Population and Sampling

A
descriptive research methodology was used for this study. A survey was
administered to a selected sample from a specific population within the hotel
and among potential customers within Thika town. The term ‘survey’ is commonly
applied to a research methodology designed to collect data from a specific
population, or a sample from that population, and typically utilizes a
questionnaire or an interview as the survey instrument. (Robson, 1993).

Surveys
are used to obtain data from individuals about themselves, their households, or
about larger organizations (Imperial Hotel). Sample surveys are an important
tool for collecting and analysing information from selected individuals. They
are widely accepted as a key tool for conducting and applying basic social
science research methodology (Rossi, Wright, and Anderson, 1983).

There
are distinct advantages in using a questionnaire vs. an interview methodology:
questionnaires are less expensive and easier to administer than personal
interviews; they lend themselves to group administration and they allow
confidentiality to be assured. Robson (1993) indicates that mailed surveys are
extremely efficient at providing information in a relatively brief time period
at low cost to the researcher. For these reasons, I chose a descriptive
research methodology and designed a questionnaire survey instrument to assess
the perceptions of selected customers, customer service, and the management
regarding the quality and condition, maintenance, and improvement of Imperial
Hotel reservation system in Thika.

 

For
this study, the three categories (Clients (guests), system administrators and
management) of people in Imperial Hotel system were identified. The methodology
for this study was a stratified random sample of the people.

Random
sampling is the best single way to obtain a representative sample. No
technique, not even random sampling guarantees a representative sample, but the
probability is higher for this procedure than for any other.

Stratified
random sampling is an appropriate methodology in order to make proportionate,
and therefore meaningful, comparisons between sub-groups in the population.
Robson (1993) tells us that sampling theory supports stratified random sampling
as an efficient choice because the means of the stratified samples are likely
to be closer to the mean of the population overall. Finally, Leary (1995)
indicates that a stratified random sample will typically reflect the
characteristics of the population as a whole. Consequently, the sample in this
study was disaggregated by region to address the fact that there is wide
variance in the number people within each section.

A
stratified random sample in the company was selected to get and fill
questionnaire for this study. This sample is indicated below and was developed
from the people involved in the survey. Only people who were within the
organization at that particular time were included for the purposes of this
survey. The numbers in the sample are based on our calculations regarding sample
size for research activities.