1. al., 2014), epigallectin from green tea

1.    
Introduction

Babesiosis
and theileriosis are tick-transmitted diseases that cause economic losses in
the bovine and equine industry worldwide (Bock et al., 2004). Babesia bovis and B. bigemina are the most pathogenic agents in cattle (Bock et al., 2004). While, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi are considered the most devastating infections in
horses. The cattle and horses that survive acute infections may become
persistent reservoirs for ongoing transmission (Massaro et al., 2008).

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The
prevention and control of babesiosis and theileriosis rely on vector control, the
use of vaccines and the drugs available on the market (Uilenberg, 2006). Unfortunately,
there are few drugs available such as diminanzene aceturate (DA) and imidocarb dipropionate
(Vial and Gorenflot, 2006). Moreover,
imidocarb dipropionate has showed strong toxicity to the host and diminazene
aceturate resistant parasites have emerged (Mosqueda et al., 2012). Previous studies
have recently documented the effectiveness of antibabesial herbal compounds as
fusidic acid (Salama et al., 2013), allicin (Salama et al., 2014), epigallectin
from green tea (AbouLaila et al., 2010b) against the
growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites, however, none of
these compounds are available for use in the veterinary market yet (Mosqueda et al., 2012).  Noteworthy, the discovery of new molecules
creates a pool of potential compounds for selection of drugs to advance into
clinical trials.

Over
the past decades, research on herbal plants has provided modern medicine with
several useful chemical ingredients that have been used to manage several
ailments. However, many people in developing countries especially in Africa and
Asia still rely on crude herbal extracts to treat several ailments for both
humans and animals (Samuelsson et al., 1991). This is partly
because they are cheap and easily accessible (Ngarivhume et al., 2015). Cinnamon is one
of the commonly used plants in traditional medicine. Cinnamon belongs to the
genus Cinnamomum and it comprises about 250 species of plants
distributed worldwide especially in parts of Africa and Asia (Muthuswamy et al., 2008). Cinnamon has
several medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycaemic, antibacterial,
antioxidant, spasmolytic, antidiarrheal, antifungal, anti-tumor, analgesic,
gastro protective, anticancer and anthelmintic (Ho et al., 2013; Hong et al., 2012; Williams et al.,
2015). Interestingly, recent reports
documented the antimalarial effect of cinnamon extract (Nkwanwen et
al., 2013: Parvazi et al., 2016) However, to our
knowledge, no data has reported the efficacy of cinnamon against the growth of Babesia and Theileria parasites.

Cinnamon has showed several
medicinal properties because the cinnamon plant contains many phytochemical
ingredients such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, cinnamate and numerous
polyphenols (Satya et al., 2012a). Therefore, it is important to use the
extraction method that can harvest the effective phytochemical molecules in
cinnamon plant. Unfortunately, the different extraction solvents that include,
methanol, ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate have shown variation in the amount
and types of the bioactive molecules harvested (Dvorackova et al., 2015). The current study aimed to assess the
effectiveness of methanolic, ethanolic, acetonic and ethyl acetate cinnamon
extracts against the growth of bovine Babesia
(B. bovis and B. bigemina),
equine piroplasms parasites (B. caballi and T. equi) using
in vitro culture. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of ethyl
acetate and acetonic cinnamon extracts on rodent Babesia that infects
humans (B. microti) using a mouse model.