is an emerging technology having the ability to change the way we live. In IoT
vision, each and every ‘thing’ has the ability of talking to each other that
brings the idea of Internet of Everything in reality. Numerous IoT services can
make our daily life easier, smarter, and even safer. Using IoT in designing
some special services can make a lifesaver system. In this paper, we have
presented an IoT enabled approach that can provide emergency communication and
location tracking services in a remote car that meets an unfortunate accident
or any other emergency situation. Immediately after an accident or an
emergency, the system either starts automatically or may be triggered manually.
Depending upon type of emergency (police and security, fire and rescue,
medical, or civil) it initiates communication and shares critical information
e.g. location information, a set of relevant images taken from prefixed angles
etc. with appropriate server/authority. Provision of interactive real-time
multimedia communication, real-time location tracking etc. have also been
integrated to the proposed system to monitor the exact condition in real-time
basis. The system prototype has been designed with Raspberry Pi 3 Model B and
UMTS-HSDPA communication protocol.
Things (IoT) 1 is the technology helping us to achieve the goal of a smart world.
IoT and Cyber Physical system 2 have the ability to change the vision of our
way of living. All developing countries are aiming to transform their cities
into Smart City 3 by taking several projects. For example, the government of
India has taken an initiative called Digital India 4 to connect the nation to
Internet. In a smart city every device or better to say every ‘thing’ is
connected 24 × 7 to the Ubiquitous network . They can communicate to each other
regardless of their communication protocols and hardware /software
infrastructure. Machine to machine (M2M) communication is rapidly growing to
make the machines more intelligent and shared in nature. In this paper, we have
used the concept of a smart city to provide a life savior system for a smart
vehicle in any kind of emergency situation occurred on road. Most of the modern
cars are well equipped with several sensors, mechanical devices, software,
embedded hardware etc. to pre-detect collisions or crashes and avoid them.
and security’ is
one of the most important criteria of a vehicle. These kinds of modern safety systems
are very much useful and reliable for car drivers as well as passengers on
road. But those safety systems have one major limitation. These systems can
only be used to avoid crashes. But unfortunately, if the system fails to avoid
an accident or there is any other emergency situation other than accident,
those systems have no provision to deal with them. If the driver gets sick
while driving or some road blockage occurs or some mechanical problem occurs,
those systems can’t help. A study says that in India 141,526 people were killed
on road in 2014 by different types of road accidents. Most of them were killed
due to late arrival of rescue teams to the accident location. So it is obvious
that if the accident information can be sent to the respective authorities
immediately after a situation has occurred some of the lives could be saved.
Main enabling factor of
this promising paradigm is the integration of several technologies and
communications solutions. Identification and tracking technologies, wired and
wireless sensor and actuator networks, enhanced communication protocols (shared
with the Next Generation Internet), and distributed intelligence for smart
objects are just the most relevant. As one can easily imagine, any serious
contribution to the advance of the Internet of Things must necessarily be the
result of synergetic activities conducted in different fields of knowledge,
such as telecommunications, informatics, electronics and social science. In
such a complex scenario, this survey is directed to those who want to approach
this complex discipline and contribute to its development. Different visions of
this Internet of Things paradigm are reported and enabling technologies
reviewed. What emerges is that still major issues shall be faced by the
research community. The most relevant among them are addressed in details.
of Things (IoT) shall be able to incorporate transparently and seamlessly a
large number of different and heterogeneous end systems, while providing open
access to selected subsets of data for the development of a plethora of digital
services. Building a general architecture for the IoT is hence a very complex
task, mainly because of the extremely large variety of devices, link layer
technologies, and services that may be involved in such a system. In this paper
we focus specifically to an urban IoT systems that, while still being quite a
broad category, are characterized by their specific application domain. Urban
IoTs, in fact, are designed to support the Smart City vision, which aims at
exploiting the most advanced communication technologies to support added-value
services for the administration of the city and for the citizens. This paper
hence provides a comprehensive survey of the enabling technologies, protocols
and architecture for an urban IoT. Furthermore, the paper will present and
discuss the technical solutions and best-practice guidelines adopted in the
Padova Smart City project, a proof of concept deployment of an IoT island in
the city of Padova, Italy, performed in collaboration with the city
system is divided in three major parts, an onboard embedded device (situation
node), emergency control terminal room and rescue center terminal. We have
divided vehicular emergencies into five different types according to their
characteristics. The details of each part is discussed in the following
Details of the
System A vehicular emergency system is highly necessary and is an integral part
of any smart city for proper safety, security, and reliability of smart living.
Most important feature of this system is when a vehicle meets an accident the
system starts automatically and track its location and takes some of its
initial photos with the preinstalled cameras and send them immediately to the
emergency control room. The control room system automatically finds the nearest
hospital and police station and forwards the message to them. Now the hospital
and police station authority analyze the situation with the help of initial
photos and send rescue teams to the accident location. We have divided
emergency situations in five different categories as follows.
Type-1(Accident): This is the most important emergency type for a vehicle on
road. When a vehicle crashes or meets any accident the system sends the
emergency message to the nearest hospital and police station. Also, the
preinstalled cameras activate only for this type of emergency to help the rescue
teams to understand the real scenario of the situation from the base station
and act accordingly.
(Medical): Sometime it happens that a passenger or the driver of a car suddenly
becomes sick and is unable to go to the hospital or find any hospital nearby.
In that case, they can start the system manually and define the emergency type
to medical issue. For this type of emergency the control room sends the message
to the 672 nearest hospital as emergency medical situation and the hospital acts
(Criminal): If a car meets some criminal issue, they can also contact the
control room for help. For this case the nearest police station is informed.
(Civil): If there is any natural calamity, and the road is blocked by some
barrier, the nearest government civil service office and police station are
(Mechanical): If a vehicle meets some mechanical problems, nearest car workshop
is informed. Table I summarizes different types of emergencies, respective
rescue authorities and emergency priority.
To store all necessary information on car,
control room, and rescue centers we need very well structured databases to
perform correctly. Any kind of delay whether it is communication or response
delay could be dangerous for someone who is on road and needs immediate help.
So the structure of the database should be simpler and we should avoid complex
queries to retrieve data from database. In our system, we have used three
databases to design the prototype as follows. • Car Database: The vehicular
database contains all very essential data about the vehicle. Here the car’s
registration number, owner’s details etc. are pre-installed. Also for emergency
contact, the owner’s family or friends contact information are also stored
here. • Control Room Database: To provide immediate service, the control room
needs to know all nearby rescue centers’ location and their services within its
locality. So, in the control room database details of all the nearby hospitals,
police stations, govt. offices, workshops etc along with their locations and
respective emergency services are stored. Whenever an emergency message comes
to the control room, it automatically finds nearest rescue center from the
actual emergency location for that particular emergency type and forwards the
message to them immediately. • Rescue Center Database: Individual rescue
centers have their own databases to store all the records of emergency messages
coming from the emergency control room. In this database, all incoming messages
coming from control room are stored with the relevant information about the
emergency situations, i.e. emergency location, type, images etc.
For our system,
the vehicle needs to be equipped with some hardware equipments. For example, to
track the exact location of the car, there should be a GPS device that will
return the exact location information of the car. But if GPS is not available,
we can use some other techniques to get location, like network location, Geo location
service 16 from Google etc. For our prototype, we have used Google’s Geo location
17 service to get the location (latitude, longitude) in a real time basis.
Other very important feature of the system is the emergency camera in a car.
For this purpose, we need to install some cameras in the car in different
angles to make the car’s full interior part visible. Also, it is very important
that if someone meets any accident or other emergency situation, his family /
friends need to be informed. For this purpose, there should be a database in
the car where the car, its owner, and emergency contact information is stored
that will also be sent to the control room. The prototype of the vehicular part
has been designed with the following hardware devices.
• For our prototype design we have used
Raspberry Pi 3 Model B 18 single board computer as main development board for
the vehicular sub-unit design.
• An USB 4G/LTE
19 Dongle is used to track location of the car and also for communication
• An USB Webcam
is also used to capture images of the inner parts of the car and also for
real-time video communication.
• A microphone
and a speaker are also there for voice communication from the car.
As discussed earlier, system triggering can be
done both automatically and manually. Automatic triggering can be done by
several modern mechanical and electronic devices by detecting collision break
failure etc. If the system is triggered automatically, the type of the
situation is set to Type-1 (accident) by default. For this case, the driver
need not do anything. The emergency cameras start taking initial photos and
system tracks the location automatically. Finally, the message is generated
with all required information. The 673 emergency message contains emergency
type, location, initial photo, and car’s information, including emergency
contact details. The emergency message structure is shown in Figure 2. The
entire architecture for a situation node is shown in Figure 3. If the system is
triggered manually by the driver, it asks for the type of the emergency. Here a
Watchdog timer has been integrated that waits for 10 seconds for type
specification. If type is specified within time, emergency type is set to the
specified type, otherwise it treats the situation as an accident and activates
the auto mode. For example, a driver gets sick suddenly while driving. If he
could manage to turn on the emergency system and specify the emergency type,
the system immediately treats the situation as a medical emergency and acts
accordingly. If the driver could manage to activate the emergency system but
could not specify the emergency type, the watchdog timer of the system waits
for 10 seconds for type specification; if not, it treats the situation as an
accident and starts acting accordingly. After generating the emergency message
the car’s system delivers the message to the emergency control room.
In this paper,
we have proposed an emergency contact and location tracking system for
vehicular emergencies on road. The system is fully automatic in nature that can
help us to minimize accidental and other emergency damages. This prototype is
mainly designed for smart cities and IoT enabled vehicles. However, this system
may also be used with existing infrastructure in any cities. This proposed
system is only able to send emergency information from a vehicle to nearby
rescue centers, but it can’t help to avoid any emergency issues. Also, the
system is dependent on several mechanical and electrical devices in a car to
detect accident or other emergencies. In future, we would like to include these
concerns. Also, we are aiming to design a hardware secured 22 on chip
(System-on-Chip / Network-on-Chip) system featuring these services in future.
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3 A. Zanella, N. Bui, A. Castellani, L.
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