ABSTRACT landscapes, and re vegetation in dry

   

ABSTRACT

            Nowadays, Water is
an essential part of our life. Hence water is considered to be basic need of
human.
In
recent years, water consumption increases due to globalisation and population
growth. There is a challenge in day to day life of every country to sustain the
fresh food requirement and reducing the farm water consumption.
Agriculture is the main occupation of human being. Water
is required in tremendous quantity in agriculture field. Water wastage is one
of the major problem in agriculture. Water wastage occurs when excess of water
has been used to the fields. Many technologies are improved to
decrease the water consumption and human involvement in the particular task in
an agricultural field. This paper mainly deals with the survey of different
technologies used in agriculture.

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INTRODUCTION

            Watering is the most important and labour-intensive task
in daily greenhouse operation. Watering systems ease the burden of watering
plants. Knowing when to water and quantity of water required is two important
aspects of watering process. Irrigation is the artificial method of watering
the plant. It is used to assist the growth of agricultural crops,  maintenance of  landscapes, and  re vegetation 
in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall 1.

 The irrigation based agriculture is one of the
biggest consumer of fresh water with a share up to 80-90% in the developed
countries. The increased demand for water and the climatic changes are anticipating
that the water resources for agriculture will be lower in the forthcoming
decades. The ef?cient use of the water is becoming an  important issue since the competition in
terms of cost reduction and high crop quality is more and more tight 2. The
accurate scheduling of the irrigation will become a major challenge for
agriculture to avoid wastage of water 3.

At
present, the requirement of water is growing at more than twice the rate of
population increases. Due to the shortage of water resources, we need to adapt
water saving irrigation technology for agriculture. The rainwater is used for
agriculture in rainy seasons and the well or bore well water is used for other
times 4.Therefore, water is required in tremendous quantity in agriculture
field. Water wastage is one of  the major
problems in agriculture. This water wastage occurs excess of water is been
provided to the fields 5.The dry regions having very little amount of water
and that has to be utilized very efficiently. In conventional irrigation system
the wastage of water is very high. Therefore, the conventional method can be
replaced by drip irrigation technology. 
A new idea for saving each drops of water by the way to test the soil
conditions before supplying water to the crop field. This mechanism will reduce
the workload of the cultivator and helps to maintain the suitable soil
conditions for the better crop production. This technology advancement is
possible to design systems that eradicate the direct involvement of the
cultivator with respect to irrigation of their field. For the sustainable use
of water resources, the rainwater is generally stored in a tank and then
utilized for irrigation or directed to recharge groundwater. Nowadays so many
technologies are improved to decrease the human involvement in the particular
task. So, farmers are moving towards new innovations to build their
agricultural field as better 6.

 

TECHNOLOGIES
USED IN WATER SAVING

            A Wireless sensor network is the one which is used to
monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, humidity and
moisture to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main
location 7. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) in general consists
of processing component, communication components which is for routing purpose
and for gateway purpose, graphical user interface (GUI) for visual inspection
or manual user interaction, power source, sensors for capturing sensing
parameters 8.

BLUETOOTH
TECHNOLOGY

            A Bluetooth is a device which is mainly used to connect
phones or computer by using radio waves.It is suitable for short range
communication. Bluetooth technology is used to connect piconet network devices
in which one device acts as a master and other all devices acts as a slave.
Piconets
are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth devices enter and
leave radio proximity. Bluetooth not only connect the devices together but also
connect the devices to mobile phones or computer.

          Dinesh kumar et al., have proposed a system
based on Water Level Monitoring and Controlling Using Bluetooth in Agriculture.
In this system, moisture sensors are used to measure the water level.This
measurement was sent to the farmer through mobile phones.This phone is
connected to electricity water pump and sensor devices. Therefore the
electricity water pump is controlled by the farmer on wireless network by using
mobile application. The Water level values are displayed in digital values in
the mobile application screen page. After identify the water level the mobile
application was also adopted with the electric water pump motor to control the
switch ON/OFF 1.

 

                                         

                                                   
FIGURE 1:Bluetooth network

 

WIFI
TECHNOLOGY

            Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity, which refers to
wireless technology that allows devices to communicate over a wireless signal.The
standard for Wifi is IEEE 802.11.It is mainly used to connect the computer to
the internet 9. It is suitable
for short range communication (approximately l0’s of meters).It
was developed for mobile computing devices such as laptops  10.

            Kabilan et al.,have proposed a system based on
Surveillance and Steering of Irrigation System in Cloud using Wireless Sensor
Network and Wi-Fi Module.In this approach, the amount of water flow can be
controlled by automatic system with the help of Internet Of Things.Various in
field sensors and thermistors are used to measure the volumetric water content
and humidity of the air.According to the images of soil and plant the database
is created.This database mainly contains the information such as moisture
content,humidity etc. The color of the plants and the soil
images can be retrieved using Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (LDA).This
LDA approach is used to convert the RGB images of plant and soil to database.
The
processing of the images should be performed by differentiating the plant and
soil segments.Therfore transductive support vector machine (TSVM) algorithm is
used for classification and qualification.In this  system Wifi module is mainly used to connect
the microcontroller and arduino to wireless technology which allows the device
to communicate over various network 11.        

                               

                                                
FIGURE 2:Wifi network

WIMAX
TECHNOLOGY

            Wimax is a wireless technology of wireless broadband
accesss.It is  an alternative to
cable and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).The standard of Wimax is IEEE 802.16.It
has higher bandwidth when compared to other wireless technologies.It provides
two classes of service they are fixed wimax and mobile wimax for different
applications.Some of the characteristics features are flexible structure,high
security,cost effective etc 12.

            Usha Rani et al.,have proposed a system based on an
Integration of Wireless sensor Network through Wi-Max for Agriculture .Now a
days the importance of water level management is increased in agricultural
field.Monitoring of environmental factors such as temperature,moisture content
in the soil depends on the amount of water flow will be allowed. In this paper
two types of method are used by taking the measurement manually and by
automatic process using sensors.It is mainly based on Wimax technology.By using
this wimax technology,the agricultural field with smart irrigation can be
monitored anywhere 6.              

                                   

                                                        
FIGURE 3:Wimax network

 

XBEE
TECHNOLOGY

            Xbee was created by Zigbee alliance and it was suitable
for high level communication protocol.The standard for Xbee is IEEE 802. 15.4.It
is simpler and low cost.It covers a range of about 10-100m.Power consumption is
very low in xbee technology 13.

            Kumar et al.,have proposed a system
based on Smart Irrigation Using Low-Cost Moisture Sensors and XBee-based Communication.
This paper aims to control the water supply in water deficient area by using
bespoke and low cost moisture sensor. This sensor is fabricated using
affordable material.This sensor works on the principle of moisture dependent
resistance.The informations collected by the moisture sensors are sent to
centralised server through xbee wireless communication that controls the flow
of water. The main advantage of using this technology is power consumption 14.

ZIGBEE 
TECHNOLOGY

            ZigBee is a IEEE 802.15.4 based, low
power, low data rate supporting wireless networking standard,
which is basically used for two-way communication between sensors and control
system. It is a short-range communication standard like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi,
covering range of 10 to 100 meters. The difference being while Bluetooth and
Wi-Fi are high data rate communications standard supporting transfer of complex
structure like media, software etc.,ZigBee Technology supports transfer of
simple data like that from sensors. It supports low data rate of about 250
kbps. The operating frequencies are 868 MHz, 902 to 928 MHz and 2.4 GHz. ZigBee
Technology is used mainly for applications requiring low power, low cost, low
data rate and long battery life 15.

            Ayman have proposed a system based
on Web-Based Irrigation Management for Open Canals Using Wireless Sensor
Networks. The paper demonstrates a Wireless Sensor Network configuration that
is used for managing crop irrigation from open canals using water pumps. The
system comprises water level sensors attached to main irrigation canals, as
well as flow sensors attached to water pumps. Each sensor is connected to a
solar-powered wireless Zigbee module to form a sensor node. All sensor nodes
are connected to a Zigbee gateway that collects sensor data periodically and
sends it to web server using GPRS connection. The back-end of the system
consists of a web server linked to a database to keep track of irrigation water
level at all main and auxiliary canals. The amount of water used for each area
of land is also monitored and compared to the optimum amount according to crop
type. A prototype of the proposed system has been implemented, deployed and
tested at a typical village in delta of Egypt, where a severe problem of fair
distribution of irrigation water is encountered 16.

                              

                                         

 

                                                  
 FIGURE 4:Zigbee network

 

COMPARISON OF TECHNOLOGIES

 
Reference

 
Technology

 
Standard

 
Range

 
Power
consumption

 
Frequency

 
9,13,17

 
Bluetooth

 
802.15.1

 
10m

 
Medium

 
2.4GHZ

 
9,13,17

 
Wifi

 
802.11

 
100m

 
High

 
2.4GHZ
5GHZ

 
12

 
Wimax

 
802.16

 
50km

 
 

 

 
13
 

 
Xbee

 
802.15.4

 
10-100m

 
Low

868/915
MHZ
2.4GHZ

 
5,9,17

 
Zigbee

 
802.15.4

 
70-300m

 
Very
low

2.4GHZ
868MHZ
915MHZ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 This paper describes that from the above comparison Zigbee is an
advanced technology when compared to other wireless technologies.
ZigBee is targeted at the applications that require
a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking. It is a low-cost, low-power, wireless mesh network
standard. The low cost allows the technology to be widely deployed in wireless
control and monitoring applications.

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