Coffee is originated in Africa south
west of Ethiopia Kaffa. The legend says the goat herder Kaldi first discovered the
potential of these beloved beans. The story goes that Kaldi discovered
coffee after he noticed that after eating the berries from a certain tree, his
goats became so energetic that they did not want to sleep at night and he
reported his finding (WWW.ncausa.org/about-coffee/history-) after that coffee was introduced and cultivated
in several countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America countries.
Coffee (Arabia, Robusta) is an important cash crop grown in
Tropics. The green coffee is the second largest traded commodity in the world
next only to petroleum and its products. Many developing countries economy
depend on coffee as a major source of foreign exchange.
According to Global
Agricultural Information Network (2016) Ethiopians thirty five percent foreign
exchange earn from coffee. In Ethiopia coffee is not only the source of income
but also use in social, cultural and historical identity. People have been
drinking coffee in average three times in a day and it is an inevitable
beverage in their daily menu. From the total production forty five percent consumed
in the country and the rest fifty five percent export to foreign countries.
Around the world, roughly
twenty five million people mainly from less Developed countries engaged in coffee
production processing chain Catturain (2008). These twenty five million people
or indirectly depending on coffee. Ninety five percent of coffee is produced by
smallholder farmers with in less than two hectares
of farm land and only five percent coffee produced by estate farm Amamo (2014). Farmers who have large farm size can cultivates large
coffee and earn more income but the farm size is small also the benefit farmers
and his family earn from coffee farm is less.
Another challenge smallholder farmers faced is
marketing problems. Governmental and non- governmental organization working to
solve marketing problems of the farmers; but still the problem is not yet
solved. As literature indicated, that the main problems of smallholder farmers
insufficient and inadequate physical infrastructure, lack of basic education
and marketing knowledge, lack of organizational support, lack of marketing
information scarcity of farm land, marketing channel transparency are some of
the problems frequently seen in different studies.
This meta-analysis critically analyzed study
conducted in the marketing problems of coffee smallholder producers and based
on the finding of frequently seen problems the concerning bodies to give series
attention and solve the problems.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
Due to limited capacity and capabilities to
handle marketing problems of smallholder farmers, they are forced to live with
their families in poverty. To alleviate the marketing problems many
institutions and companies are actively participated. Particularly donors and
non-government organizations have working to solve the marketing problems of
smallholder farmers of coffee but the problems are not yet solved. As study
done in this area indicates the main problems of coffee marketing are lack of
infrastructure, lack of inputs, lack of marketing information, high
transportation cost, marketing channel, price setting, farm size, educational
level, availability of credit/ finance,
low support of government and age
of smallholder farmers frequently seen
in studies conducted in different countries from 2004-2017.
To solve marketing problems
of smallholder farmers those problems frequently seen in different studies
influence the life of the more than
twenty five million people directly or indirectly depend on coffee production.
Therefore, any concerned
body, policy makers, government and non- government organizations should give
strong attention to solve the main marketing problems of smallholder farmers
identified by different researchers.
of the study
This paper is aimed to
analyzed study conducted from 2004 – 2017 on marketing problems of smallholder
farmers of coffee in global and to identify the most frequent variables and
their findings to identify marketing problems of small holder coffee farmers
Specific objectives of
following are the specific objectives of the study:
To identify major factors that affecting
smallholder farmers market performance.
To analyze the market structure and share of different parties
involve in coffee marketing
To analyze marketing information access to
Techniques of the study
steps were used to summarize the review work. Such as listed below:-
Framing questions for review:- Marketing problems
of smallholder coffee farmers problems addressed by the review clearly and structured
questions before beginning the review work.
Identify relevant work: – studies related to the
topic selected from review questions.
Assessing the quality of studies:- before
including studies in review the quality of study evaluated for exploring
heterogeneity and informing decisions regarding sustainability of
Summarizing the evidence:- data synthesizing
consist of tabulation of study variables seen in the study as well as their
effect and difference between studies and combining their effects.
Interpreting the findings:- summarizing the work and based on the evidence
2. Review of Literature
Major studies conducted by different researchers related to coffee
marketing problems discussed bellow.
Alemayehu etal (2015) critically identified the
existing coffee market channel and actors involved in the chain, identified
variables of the study were gender, age, educational level, family size, farm
experience, productive recourse, infrastructure, transportation cost, and
distance from home to market were identified. The finding of the study
indicated as socio-economic characteristics and infra structure, distance from
home to market transportation cost affect marketing activities. Large family
sizes perform better than small family size and adding value.
Tesfaye etal (2016) analyzed the challenges and prospects of Agricultural Marketing in Konta
Special district. As the result of
finding indicated that there were high transaction cost, lack of financial
credit, absence of control on unlicensed traders, government support related,
unavailability of transport services and high transport shortage, lack of trust
in marketing, lack of awareness market actors lack of adequate storage
facilities at appropriate locations, and lack of market information identified.