Collinger, J. L., Foldes, S., Bruns, T. M., Wodlinger, B., Gaunt, R., & Weber, D. J. (July, 2013). Neuroprosthetic technology for individuals with spinal injury. The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 36 (4), 258-272. Doi: 10.1179/2045772313Y.0000000128This article provides a review of neuroprosthetic technology that aims to address the priorities for restoration in the perspectives of individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI). It explains different neuroprostheses that are in a variety of stages of development, clinical testing, and commercialization. Some examples of these neuroprosthetics include functional electrical stimulators, microstimulation within the spinal cord, bladder neuroprosthesis, and cortical stimulation for restoring physical susceptibility. The article also talks about neural recording technologies that would be able to provide different command signals for the neuroprosthetic devices. Overall, the article believes that neuroprostheses have started to attend to the greater issues of individuals with SCI, although it believes that more improvements could be made. They believe informing users about the technology and allowing them to understand how devices work may improve device performance levels.Schwartz, A. B., Cui, T., Weber, D. J., & Moran, D. W. (October 2006). Brain-Controlled Interfaces: Movement Restoration with Neural Prosthetics. Neuron, volume 2 issue 1, 205-220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2006.09.019This article describes brain-controlled interfaces, which are devices that capture brain transmissions required in creating one’s intention of movement, that are able to restore communication and movement to those who are unable to move. It speaks of current devices that are able record electrical activity from different places on human head such as the scalp, the surface of the brain, and even within the cerebral cortex. Then the signals recorded are translated to drive prosthetic limbs and computer displays. The article suggests that using new technology to improve the devices will help render exhilarating laboratory products to use for patients in the near future. The researchers and writers also believe that the these devices will only become more popular in the future when they will improve the quality of the movement that is produced. They believe this will happen in the near future due to how the neural prosthetics field is rapidly growing. Saal, H. P., & Bensmaia, S. J. (December 2015). Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface. Neuropsychologia, 79 part B, 344-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.06.010 This article describes the importance of the sense of touch, which is important in performing the most basic activities of daily living. Touch is important in motor control as well as in effective conveyance and representation. Because of this, the authors believe that through the use of bionic hands to restore touch is still not particularly developed. Instead, they focus on approaches to reinstate the perception of touch through the peripheral nerve with an electrical device. They describe devices that can electrically activate nerve fibers implanted into the nerves persistently. They also explain how these devices can be used used to transport simple somatosensory feedback. There is information about how the somatosensory nerve encrypts information about objects that are held in different limbs into neural codes and how those codes are used to show feedback. They also display a blueprint for how neural codes could be used in a neuroprosthetic device that would be able to express touch. Vassanelli, S. (2011). Brain-Chip Interfaces: The Present and The Future. Procedia Computer Science, 7, 61-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2011.12.020This article takes a look at brain-chip-interfaces (BCHIs), which are a combination of computer chips and nerve cells that are able to establish a close physical interaction allowing the transfer of information in one or both directions. The article provides an overview on recent achievements in the field of BCHIs leading to the enhancement of signal transmissions from nerve cells to chip or from chip to nerve cells. The uses of different types of chips and how they work along with the cells. Oxide-insulated chips represent a promising technology for high spatiotemporal resolution interfacing, where there have been recent experiments done using animal tissues. Finally, the article presents and discusses important challenges for the future of BCHIs.Tsai, S. T., Hung, H. T., & Chen, S. Y. (June 2014). Deep brain stimulation modifies cognitive function. Tzu Chi Medical Journal, 25 issue 2, 86-89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcmj.2013.01.005This article believes that the use of brain stimulation techniques to treat movement disorders and psychiatric diseases has shown potential to decode the neural mechanism that underlies the cognitive process. Given the increased interest in deciphering of the cognitive process, brain stimulation is under examination to explore its potential ability in creating cognitive function. The article gives evidence of clinical studies involving brain stimulation that have demonstrated increased cognition. The authors summarize the cerebral circuits used in cognition and memory, and also the proposed mechanisms that might be under behavioral improvements after stimulation. The authors believe that studies conducted in animals and humans as well as technological advancements in bioengineering can expand the applicability of brain stimulation to take down diseases with learning or memory impairment can be anticipated in the near future.