In and PG cells distribution can be

In a study using mouse chimaeras, normal cells (N)
where added to androgenetic (AG) and parthenogenetic (PG) embryos in an early
developmental stage thus producing AG-N and PG-N mice. Both types with less
than 40% AG or PG cells survived to term, however they possessed different
brain phenotypes. AG-N chimaeras had comparatively small brains with a larger
body while the PG-N chimaeras had a larger brain, particularly the forebrain,
and smaller body in comparison with wild-type controls.


When integrated with the reporter gene lacZ, AG and PG cells distribution can
be analyzed in detail. These experiments showed that cell distribution was not
random, but that it had distinct patterns. AG cells where primarily located in
the hypothalamic, pre-optic and septal areas and excluded from the overlying
cortex. While PG cells where primarily located in neocortical areas, the
hippocampus and the striatum, but not present in the same regions as the AG

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This study strongly suggested that imprinted genes are
important in neurodevelopment and that paternal and maternal genomes possibly
play different roles in brain function. It was interpreted that maternal genes
could play an important role in neurodevelopment of ‘higher’ cognitive systems,
while paternal genes are important for the development of ‘autonomic’ or
’emotional’ systems.