In supporting the instructional strategies intended to

In the present
scenario English has become an economic necessity. In  a report on teaching of English published by
the Ministry of Education and Youth Service, New Delhi: 1971 stated  that there are three different but related
demands which have to be met in framing the programme for the future of English
Teaching in India for the benefits of the students. They were the changing
conditions and the need to answer the problems created thereby; the role of
English as a “source” language; and the place of English as a ‘link’ with the
outside world for the acquisition of new knowledge (Krishnaswamy, 2009). On account of the demands set by the Minister
of Education in India and the demands of the students in learning English, the
researcher to frame a material (Theatre Pedagogy) based on the Backward Design
approach learning.  According to the
Glossary of Education Reform (2013), Backward Design is defined as a process used to design the learning
experiences and
instructional techniques to achieve specific learning goals.

Wiggins
and McTighe (2005) provide insights on the main objectives of Backward Design. Its
objectives are to identify what students are expected to learn and be able to
do—and then proceed “backward” to create lessons that achieve those desired
goals. The approaches may vary from instructor to instructor but a basic
backward-design process might undergo the following steps: review of learners’
standard, index the learners’ essential knowledge, skills and concepts during a
specific unit, design the assessment style, and frame the series of modules supporting
the instructional strategies intended to progress the acquisition of the
learner to the desired goals and finally determine the assessment strategy. In
the present study the researcher has adopted the backward design model for
designing the theatre manual. The facilitator of Act on Info from Theatre in
Education suggests that the educational activity like TIE (type with in quotes)
involves high audience participation, encourages an emotional memorable
connection, develop social and interactive skills like communication, public
speaking, negotiation, awareness of themselves and others, teamwork, improved
concentration and self-confidence.

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Alexandra William Flex (2014) states the benefits of
developing Theatre-based curriculum in her article are two-fold.
One of the greatest benefits, for any academic program, is building intrinsic
motivation in students. When students are motivated to study – when they come
to class desiring knowledge – they immediately retain more than students who
are resistant. Unfortunately, due to a lack of support from the outside
environment, intrinsic motivation is difficult to cultivate, particularly
through the use of traditional materials. With a theatre-based approach,
students are offered the opportunity to acquire language through creativity,
exploration and play.

Lee Hoi Teresa
(2007) rightly points out the students’ perceptions of using process drama in
the English language classroom. It was found that the students generally felt
positive towards the use of process drama approach. Their reasons for liking
the approach are generally consistent with the claims of the Western literature
and findings of the empirical studies. Students of the study found that drama
could create a relaxing environment, provide fun, interest and motivation. It
offers active participation opportunities. It helps in cognitive development
and encourages self -expression. It develops creativity and imagination and
facilitates the development of communication and collaboration skills. It help
them to learn things in depth and provide context for language acquisition.
Teachers felt that using dramatic approach is helpful to teach reading,
writing, speaking and listening.

According
to British Council Teaching English, using plays with language learners can
improve their reading and speaking skills, encourage creativity, help them
experiment with language -tone of voice, body language and their own lines if
they are involved in writing the play, bring them out of themselves -some
students like performing or find the script gives them confidence, involve the
whole class – non speaking parts can be given to learners who do not wish to
speak or are less confident. Technical parts of a production can give others a
role: sound effects, making scenery, being in charge of lights, props or
prompting their classmates from the “wings”.

Livingstone
(1983) claimed that role-playing has its advantages in language learning. Three
advantages that she discusses are: 1) its potential to maximize student
activity, a direct correlation to Kumaravadivelu’s first macro- strategy
(1994), 2) a motivational advantage in the areas of content relevance and
practicality, maintaining student interest, and class discipline, and 3)
role-playing’s ability to account for mixed ability groups, which she also
relates to student motivation and discipline. In regards to role-playing and
its connection to the communicative approach to language teaching, Livingstone
is cited by Wan Yee Sam (1990) and furthers her argument by directly connecting
the advantages of what he has termed role-simulation to the strategies involved
in the communicative approach in L2 learning. Because of the contributions made
by Barnes, Via, Maley and Duff, Holden, and Livingstone, drama, theatre,
role-playing and simulation, in their many forms, can never be separated from
the language classroom.

The
present Theatre model TBLIP was designed on the basis of applied Theatre models
like Sean Aita’sTheatre in Language Learning (TiLL) model, Vienna’s English
Theatre, Fox’s Playback Theatre (PT), Roger Wooster’s Theatre in
Education(TIE), Augusto Boal’s Theatre of the Oppressed, Bertolt Brecht’s Epic
Theatre and Reader’s Theatre (Greece).

In Theatre for
Best Practice with English Language Learners, Dr. Melisa Cahnmann-Taylor
conducted a workshop (2010) incorporated with theatre games to enhance English
Language Learners’ (ELLs) academic achievement and motivation. No theatre
experience was required. Through hands-on interactive activities and lessons
geared to specific grade levels and language proficiencies, teachers
develop the knowledge and skills to implement drama strategies for second language
acquisition in the TESOL and foreign language classroom as well as in general
language arts classrooms to promote dynamic, multicultural
communication strategies for all. Participants will come away with theatre
strategies to accomplish academic and social goals to: integrate ELLs into
heterogeneous classrooms and school environments; build ELL students’
confidence with language; Increase comprehension; inspire a desire to learn;
promote multicultural advocacy and efficacy for all and create a supportive and
fun language learning atmosphere.

Fox (2008) defines Playback Theatre as an interactive and improvisational
form which are used to illuminate life and incite dialogue. In playback theatre
life stories are shared by audience members and then re-enacted spontaneously
on stage. There are five basic elements that need to be in place. They are 1) Stories are volunteered; 2) The teller’s story is about
her/his own experience and s/he watches the enactment; 3) Stories are invited without prejudice or discrimination; 4) The form is spontaneous and 5) The stages of the technique are followed. These elements define playback theatre and
help to make the experience safe and meaningful. Although the form is
spontaneous, it is this formulaic aspect (there are places of repetition and
predictability) make it stable. Fox concludes, “Without a clear framework
provided by the rules, spontaneity can quickly turn into chaos, creativity into
confusion. With it, the members of the audience feel safe enough to let themselves
go into trance, allowing unforeseen breakthroughs” (Fox & Dauber, 1999,
128).

According to
Antonin Artaud, “To break through language in order to touch life, is to create
or recreate the theatre” (Artaud 1958: 31).In his writing The Theatre and its Double, Artaud
(1958) have referring to a form of gestural theatre which transcends
linguistics. To add to the views of Artaud, Martin Esslin also says “All
dramatic performance is basically iconic, a direct visual and
aural sign of a fictional or otherwise reproduced reality” (Esslin
1988: 43), Aita(2016 )widens the opinion that it follows that performing for an
audience within the L2 learning environment where levels of language
comprehension vary will undoubtedly require actors to transcend the medium of language
and communicate directly through the use of inflection, gesture, and facial
expression. On the recommendations given by several theatre and language
academicians through the vast literature review, the researcher designed the
following Theatre Framework for English Language Learning.