Innate the specific immune response and especially

Innate
immune chemokines of B-cell lymphocytes are natural ligands of viral
coreceptors and may have potential for inhibition of HIV-1 infection. These
chemokines CCL3, CCL4 and CCl5 are natural ligands for CCR5 and are
overexpressed in exposed uninfected infants what suggests their role in
mediation of inhibition of vertical transmission.18

Specific
humoral immune response seems to be important impact on mother-to-child
transmission. Although preceding studies showed increased level of maternal
immunoglobulin type G did not protect against vertical transmission some
studies consider them involved into neutralization during transmission at some
level but other studies deny this theory.19

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HIV
transmission to child is characterized by acquisition of homogenous
quasispecies or variants, yet the factors are still unclear. In another study
perinatally enveloped variants has been found to become selectively neutralized
by maternal autologous antibodies what suggest these antibodies exert changes
on the transmitted HIV virus. According to the authors of this study maternal
autologous antibody ‘can exert powerful protective and selective effects in
perinatal HIV transmission and therefore has important implications for vaccine
development’20.

It
has been found in  groups of HIV exposed individuals
counting in infected mothers and their uninfected infants specific cytotoxic
immune response though yet its mechanism in clearance and prevention from
transmission is not fully comprehended. 21

In
some studies investigated infected mothers were associated with protection
against transmission during labour and breastfeeding but the range, mechanisms
and significance are still unresolved issue. 22

The
search for the essential influencing factor that could help prevent transmission
is still leading an issue among scientists. One study consider the specific
immune response and especially  suppressive
T lymphocytes  are associated with
exposed uninfected children.23

Other
study  suggests that exposure to low
levels of antigen may be responsible for priming the protective immune responses.
These findings suggest that infants who are able to develop apparently
protective HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses have immunological features
and viral exposure histories that makes them differ from the non responding
infants, giving the all new insights into development of HIV protective
immunity. 24