Personality refers to ‘individual
differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The
study of personality focuses on
two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability’.
Type A and Type B personality are two completely different personality types.
This theory, shows that Type A personalities are more competitive, ambitious,
energetic, impatient, and aggressive. On the other hand, Type B personality is
more calm, relaxed, easy going and they focus on quality rather than quality.
If both types were to be put in a competition Type A personality would be by
all means win and if they lose it would affect them a lot, whilst Type B is
more about enjoying the competition and not too fussed about winning or losing.
personality types and traits can either help or hurt your health. An effect of
the impatient and aggressiveness of Type A personality is believed to increase
heart disease risk. Hostility, also a trait that Type A personalities have can
increase heart disease risk. ‘Hostile tend to smoke and eat more and exercise
less than Type B personality’, says Redford Williams, who is the head of
behavioural medicine at Duke University Medical Centre. They are more likely to
be overweight at mid age, causing them to have higher blood pressure and
cholesterol. Redford’s research shows that hostile individuals are likely to
develop irregular heart rhythms, and to die before reaching their 50s.
Marten’s schematic theory
of sport psychologists mostly accepts this theory. It emphasises the fact that
it is very important that we must consider the persons characteristics and
situation if we are going to accurately predict and sportsman’s behaviour.
schematics view says, ‘there are 3 different levels that all relate to one another:
the physiological core, typical responses, and role-related behaviour’.
The physiological core:
Indicative of what the person is “really” like
Basic attitudes, values, etc.
Centerpiece of personality
Most difficult to change
We would want to understand this to make any
further assumptions about a person
Usual way we respond to different environmental
Frustration, anxiety, humor, etc.
We use a person’s typical responses to determine their
May be based on one-time response
aspect of personalities
Engage in these
behaviors to fit the environment we perceive
perceptions change, our superficial behaviors change
Not a good
indicator of a person’s psychological core
A psychodynamic theory is a theory that shows
personality of conscious and unconscious needs and thoughts.
Freud put ahead a psychodynamic theory according to which personality consists
of Id, superego, and ego.
The id is the main part of personality
that is seen from birth.
This part of personality is altogether
oblivious and incorporates the natural and primitive behaviours.
According to Freud, the id is the
wellspring of all psychic energy, making it the essential component of
The ego is the component of personality
that oversees managing reality.
According to Freud, the ego progresses
from the id and guarantees that the impulses of the id can be communicated in a
The ego works in both the conscious,
preconscious, and oblivious personality.
The superego is the part of personality
that holds all our disguised good morals and standards that we get from parents
and society our feeling of good and bad.
The superego gives rules to making
According to Freud, the superego starts
to rise at around age five.
Psychodynamic theories normally hold
that youth experiences shape personality. these theories are related with
analysis, a sort of treatment that endeavours to uncover oblivious
contemplation and needs. Not all psychologists acknowledge psychodynamic
theories, and critics assert the theories need supporting scientific
information. Different theories of personality incorporate behavioural and
psychology, trait theory is a way to deal with the investigation of human personality.
Trait theorists are essentially intrigued by the estimation of traits, which
can be characterised as ongoing examples of conduct, thought, and feeling.
According point of view, traits are moderately steady after some time, vary across
people, and impact behaviour. Traits are different to states which are more
The situational – centred
views differs from the trait theories approach as it states that behaviour
relies on your situation or environment. It insists that this is far more
valuable than traits. There is some assistance for the situational
approach in sporting behaviour, as individuals may be self-absorbed– showing
characteristics such as indulgence and lack of confidence – but may take part
in a sport that needs them to be more confidence and show characteristics like
aggression in a sporting situation.
Interactional view – To anticipate behaviour in a sporting
situation, you need to examine how the situation and personality traits connect
and function together. This is called the interactional approach to personality
and sport behaviour. The interactional approach is the sight vastly supported
by sport psychologists when explaining behaviour. This theory recommends that
when situational factors are extremely powerful, for example, during
competitive sporting situations like penalty shootouts in football game,
inevitably they will predict behaviour than personality traits. The athlete who
are prone to be quiet and shy in an everyday situation is likely to run towards
a joyful crowd screaming if he scored the winning goal in a penalty shoot.
Athletes versus non-athletes and individual versus team
According to research
universal athletic personality does not exist. On the other hand, there are
some contrasts not only between non-athletes and athletes, but also between
athletes from different sport. Athletes that participate in a team sport is known
as an extrovert. Extroverts are socially
outgoing. They require high excitement levels to perform. Mentors and team
mates need to keep them ‘energised’ about performing. They favour team
activities with open skill and loads of unpredictability. this is utilised as a
part of games where you can’t anticipate what will happen next, for example in
an intrusion game like hockey. However, for athletes that compete in a non-team
sport they are known as introverts. Introverts are people who tend to be shy.
They perform better at lower excitement levels. Mentors and team mates need to
enable them to remain quiet and composed. A lot of incitement will make them
over-stirred and they won’t perform to their best standards. They incline
toward sports with fine movements, close abilities, and general schedules.
closed abilities are utilised as a part of games where you can control the
environment, for example putting in golf. This shows that to learn the
differences between athletes and non-athletes, it is important you know the
sport the athletes compete in.
suspected that successful competitors show lower levels of sadness, exhaustion,
uncertainty, outrage, however larger amounts of physical strength and good
health. on the other hand, any evidence which was utilised to reach these
inferences was inadequate because of the fact that it depended on small
quantities of competitors. Later research demonstrates that personality
represents less than 1 percent of the performance variety.
‘Motivation is thought to be a
combination of the drive within us to achieve our aims and the outside factors
which affect it. With this in mind, motivation has the following two forms,
intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation’.
Trait-centred view diagrams that
motivation conduct is fundamentally a consequence of a people’s specific
characteristics. Also known as the personality, needs and objectives of an
athlete, are the essential factors that motivate them. In these circumstances a
coach may regularly see an athlete as a ‘genuine victor’, inferring that this
individual has personal attributes that enable them to exceed expectations at
sport. This view shows that a few people have individual characteristics that
incline them to progress and elevated amounts of motivation, then again others
may be need of motivation, individual objectives, and needs. Sport
psychologists have not embraced this view since it neglects to consider the
significance of ecological impacts on motivation.
View recommends that a person’s motivation level is to a great extent
dictated by the circumstance. For instance, an athlete may be motivated at
training yet to then be unmotivated in a competitive game circumstance. sport
psychologist likewise doesn’t prescribe this view as the best guide to follow,
as a circumstance may not generally be the essential factor affecting a person’s
Interactional View- exercise and sport
psychologists most generally recognise this view. The most ideal approach to
comprehend motivation is to consider both the circumstance and member and how
the two cooperate. Along these lines it is critical to understand the
association between an athlete or a non-athlete and the particular circumstance.
Intrinsically motivated competitors take an
interest in sport for interior reasons, especially enjoyment and fulfilment,
and characteristically motivated competitors commonly focus on improvement and
Related to Intrinsic Motivation:
Less changes (good and bad times) in motivation
Expanded certainty and self-adequacy
More prominent fulfilment
motivation may originate from social sources, for example, not having any desire
to disappoint a parent, or material prizes, for example, trophies and
scholarships. Extrinsically motivated competitors tend to concentrate on the
competitive or performance result. An over-accentuation on extrinsic motivation
may lead competitors to feel like their conduct is controlled by the extrinsic
prizes. Then again, competitors may keep on feeling like they control their own
conduct even with the extrinsic rewards. These two kinds of extrinsic motivation
are featured here.
Conduct controlled by the extrinsic rewards:
Maintaining a strategic distance from
discipline or blame
“Should” accomplish something
less intrigue, esteem, and exertion
Trouble adapting to disappointment
An attribution is the explanation for an event or conduct which is then
used to determine cognitive and psychological motivation levels. Attributes occur
multiple times during the day. the outcome of the exhibited behaviour is then
interpreted accordingly. This theory therefore relates the structure of
thinking to dynamics of feeling and action.
This theory suggests that the n-ach person is ‘achievement motivated’
and therefore seeks achievement, attainment of realistic but challenging goal
Achievement Goal Theory
theory conceives ability as being self-referenced and is referred to as a task
goal orientation. Task-oriented individuals, improvement and effort
can lead to perceptions of competence and feelings of success. Second, ability
can be construed in a norm-referenced manner via social comparison. This type
of perspective is referred to as an ego goal orientation. To perceive
themselves competent or to feel successful, individuals who are predominantly ego-oriented
must outperform others or perform equally with less effort.
climate is the mental environment that the mentor makes by planning sessions
which give guidelines and criticism that will persuade the competitors in
training and games. This has been appeared to positively affect the characteristic
interest, happiness and the on-going participation in the sport by the
competitor. Numerous young kids partake in sporting activities whether it is
recreational or competitive, which is under the supervision of the