The (Hawtin and Percy-Smith, 2007). The report

The purpose of this report is
to focus on community of Stockton-On-Tees, exploring some of the health
inequalities. This report will be a community profile, the profile will include
the nurse’s roles and responsibilities in relation to facilitating health and
wellbeing across the health, wellness, illness, and age continuum. It will look
at the characteristics of COPD within Stockton and will look at the service
provision aimed at addressing the specific health improvement issue.

‘A community is a group of
people living in the same place or having particular characteristic in common’ (Oxford Dictionaries |
English, 2018). ‘A community is a group of
people with a shared cultures, values, and norms; people may belong to several
different communities focused around different aspects of life e.g. workplace,
neighbourhood and faith.’ (Naidoo and Wills, 2016).

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‘A community profile is a
representation (written or graphical) of information regarding the
characteristics of a place or a community’ (Naidoo and Wills, 2016). ‘A
community profile is a tool used for development in a community, it is also
used as a useful foundation for a wide range of policy and service delivery
related processes, this means finding out what’ (Hawtin and Percy-Smith, 2007).

The report will talk about
Stockton and long-term conditions as they are a result of lifestyle and those
living in more deprived areas are more at risk of developing a long-term
condition. The NMC code states that nurses should make sure that people’s
physical, social, and psychological needs are assessed and responded to, Nurses
will do this by paying special attention to promoting wellbeing, preventing ill
health, and meeting the changing health and care needs of people during all
life stages (Nmc.org.uk,
2015).

Stockton originally began as
an Anglo-Saxon settlement on high ground close to the River Tees. The Manor of
Stockton was created in around 1138, and was purchased by Bishop Pudsey of
Durham in 1189 and has gone through many changes. Stockton Castle is first referred to in 1376. The Scottish took over the
castle in 1644 and was occupied by them until 1646, but was destroyed on the
orders of Oliver Cromwell at the end of the Civil War. The Castle Gate Centre, remains
in Stockton as a shopping Centre, where the original castle stood (This is Stockton on Tees,
2018).

1.2 Population

In 2014
JSNA census showed that there was an approximate 194,119 people living in
Stockton. Out of the 194,199 people, 37, 792 people are 0-15-year-old, 123,134
are 16-64-year-old and 33,193 are 65+ year old (Teesjsna.org.uk, 2018).

In the 2011 census it showed
that the Stockton-On-Tees population was made up of approximately 51% females
and 49% males. 93.1% of people living in Stockton-On-Tees were born in England.
Other top answers for country of birth were 1.6% Scotland, 0.6% Pakistan, 0.5%
India, 0.4% Wales, 0.3% Northern Ireland, 0.2% Ireland, 0.2% China, 0.2%
Zimbabwe, 0.2% Philippines (Localstats.co.uk, 2018).

1.3 Social and Place

A private sector housing
condition survey was undertaken in 2009 at that time identified that of the
67,150 dwellings in Stockton, 10,700 (16%) did not meet the Government’s decent
homes standard. The cost to the Government to make these houses decent would be
£42 million. Of the non-decent homes, 4,500 contain
a Category 1 hazard. The potential cost of medical treatment and nursing
care resulting from ill health and accidents from the three main Category 1
hazards (Excess cold, falls on the level and falls on stairs) to the NHS is
almost £5.4 million per year (Teesjsna.org.uk, 2018).

The top occupations listed by
people in Stockton-On-Tees are Professional 15.9%, Associate professional and
technical 11.9%, Skilled trades 11.6%, Elementary 11.5%, Administrative, and
secretarial 11.3%, Sales and customer service 10.5%, Elementary administration
and service 10.0%, Caring, leisure and other service 9.8%, Managers, directors
and senior officials 9.1%, Administrative 8.8% (Localstats.co.uk, 2018).

Primary
schools in Stockton have levels of attainment above or similar to National
Average.  In 2012, 80% of children achieved level four or above at key
stage 2, compared with 79% in England. In 2011 8 primary schools were below the
60% threshold for children achieving level 4 or above in English and maths. Out
of 59 primary schools in Stockton, in 2011 there were 29 where not enough
Children made progress for English and 24 schools where not enough progress was
made in maths. Attendance at primary schools in Stockton is similar to England,
although just over 4% missed more than 15% of their education compared with
just under 4% nationally.

In
secondary schools in Stockton in 2012 54.3% achieved 5 or more GCSEs grade A*-C
compared with 59.4% in England. In 2016 61.5
per cent of students attained 5 A*-C grades including English
Language/Literature and maths (Stockton
Borough Council, 2016). People who have had a poor education
might find it hard to access healthcare and this mean may that they miss out on
early diagnosis.

The total crime rate in
Stockton has reduced over the last 10 years, from 105.6 per 1000 population
(2004) to 53.8 per 1,000 population (2014). The reductions equate to almost
10,000 less victims of crime. House burglary has reduced by 79%, vehicle crime
by 75%, and violent crime by 46%. Total crime has reduced by 10.9% during
October 2013 to September 2014 compared to the same period in the previous year
(Teesjsna.org.uk,
2018).

1.4
Lifestyle determinants of health

Lifestyle such as smoking,
excessive use of alcohol, the use of drugs, low level of exercise and physical
activity and poor diet all impact on physical health and mental wellbeing. These
will affect people in different ways and lifestyle can contribute to people
developing a Long-term condition.

Levels of
alcohol-related harm in Stockton-On-Tees are similar to England.  There
are higher than average rates of both alcohol-related and alcohol-specific
hospital admissions compared to England. In Stockton the level of smoking about
one-in-five adults, is similar to the rest of England, although it rises to
around one-in-two adults in some deprived areas. In Stockton, 17.7% of women
smoking throughout their pregnancy this is 40% higher than the national
average. More than one-in-four of all deaths aged under 75 years is estimated
to be because of smoking. 78% of adults and 82% of school aged children in
Stockton do not eat the recommended five daily portions of fruit and
vegetables. Dental decay is almost 50% higher in Stockton than England.
Approximately 30% adult population are Inactive. Children in Stockton complete
three hours of PE per week which is similar to national average.

1.5
Epidemiology

For
children up to the age of 5 years, immunisation rates for Stockton are higher
than the national average. Immunisation rates for children of 5 years are lower
than the national average in Stockton (Egenda.stockton.gov.uk, 2018).

Men living in Stockton, on average live to age 78, this
is a year less than the national average. Depending on what area in Stockton
you live your life expectancy could be as little as 70 years old or as much as
84 years old. Women on average live to age 82, but depending on what area you
live in it varies between 76 and 87 years old (Hogan,
2014).
 

Chapter Two – The health
improvement issue 800/900

The
report will talk about COPD as it is the fourth biggest killer in the UK, the
second most common cause of emergency admissions to hospital and one of the
costliest in-patient conditions treated by the NHS (Teesjsna.org.uk, 2018).

Chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, describes a group of lung conditions
that make it difficult to empty air out of the lungs because your airways have
been narrowed. Two of the lung conditions are bronchitis and emphysema. Bronchitis
is when the airways are iflamed and this makes them narrowed. Emphysema affects
the air sacs at the end of the airways in your lungs which break down and the lungs
become full of holes which trap air. (British Lung Foundation, 2018).