The to the large type of skills

The framework of this assignment was to observe
a teacher classroom management style, strategies, and students behaviors in the
classroom. Check if the teacher is following an established and effective
procedure, note whether positive interactions between the teacher and student
occur more frequently than negative interactions.

Finally, locate some classroom management
mistakes that occur in the class during observation and try to find solutions
to increase effective classroom management and decrease problem student
behaviors.

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Classroom management  

 

Classroom management refers
to the large type of skills and techniques that instructors use to keep students
organized, focused, attentive, on task, and academically fruitful during a
class.

When classroom-management strategies are done
effectively, instructors decrease the behaviors that block learning for both groups
of learners and individual learner, while increasing the good behavior that
promote learning.

 Effective
instructors tend to display strong classroom-management skills, while the trait
of the inexperienced or less effective instructor is a messy classroom filled
with learners who are not paying attention or working. (Reform, 2014)

The importance of classroom management is to
acquire control of the classroom, to provide a conducive learning environment
to the learner, and the best using of classroom time.

The purpose of classroom management is to create
effective learning ambiance in which lessons operate smoothly, disruption is
minimized, and students can flourish. (Digiulio, 2006)

 

School description

 

As you walk up to the school, you can see a
clean, well-maintained building that is basic to create the best environment
for teaching and learning.  

Inside,
the floors shine because of the bright colors of the walls, there are beautiful
pictures that students have painted hanging everywhere. The school is a building
of 3 floors. The playground is wide and well organized, where students can play
safely.

The
inside and outside of the building are very attractive. The main entry area is clean
and welcoming to all visitors. Student and staff bathrooms are clean, and in
working order with paper supplies with regular cleaning to prevent odors. Floors
in the halls, offices, staircases, and classrooms are clean. All classroom
doors are colorful and well decorated.  Offices are clean, and well ordered. Classes
bulletin boards are well organized and posted materials are up-to-date.  The cafeteria is clean and well maintained,
with a lot of varieties of healthy food.

Effective
teaching and learning can only take place in a safe, secure and supportive school
environment where students and staff members work together for the prosperity
of all members of the school community.

Classroom description

 

The classroom is large with one door, and two big windows. The Classroom is well-lit in order for students to
read, write, and follow what their teacher is saying.

The desks are arranged in a way where all students face the
teacher, and the teacher can walk around freely. Desks are new and clean and
have the correct dimensions for the age of the students, every desk has a shelf
where students keep their books and notebooks. A
large whiteboard where the instructor or students can share notes with other
members of the class. 

The
teachers’ desk is placed in a corner of the classroom in which she would be
able to look over all the students in her class, which is an important part of
classroom management. Names, class,
and room number are posted on the classroom door, where parents and students
can easily see them. The walls are well decorated, with some
expectations and rules that teacher would implement in her classroom. Teacher X is an English teacher for grade 4, 5,
and 6. She had been teaching for 2 years, she ended her studies in English
literature, she is young and fresh graduated.

During observation, you can see that teacher x
is more interventionist than non-interventionist.

Despising rewards and punishment are the tools
that teacher x use to get authority, and all depend on a behavioral chart
hanged on the wall.

Teacher x seems to be a mixture using coercive
and reward power. Students perceive teacher to be in a position to meet out
punishment or allow the instructor to exert power over them because they
perceive that she is in position to pass out the desired reward.

Teacher x seems in the forefront, while
learners seem in the backgrounds, she seems to be a nonassertive teacher, she
is not firm, she fails to let the students clearly know what she want and what
she will not accept (Tauber, 2007)

Referring to the checklist, the classroom was
well arranged. All the students face the teacher and the whiteboard. The
teacher can move easily between desks, but unfortunately, the teacher didn’t
circulate among the students until the end of the session.

Students were correcting a term exam, while the
teacher was writing the correct answers on the board. Teacher x didn’t check if
students were writing the right answers on their papers or not till the end of
the session.

One student didn’t write anything, she yields
to him and asks him to stay during the recess to recopy the answers. Other
student took -1 for writing with a pencil instead of a green pen.

During this session, I didn’t see any
motivation for students who had the right answers or who improved during the
exam. Teacher x ignore any inappropriate behavior in the classroom. Students
were disengaged and bored.                                                                                     Teacher x is popular but have a
low control in her classroom. She makes few demands on students and she
generally shows indifference toward student progress. In her classroom,
there is a lack of involvement, and there is a lot of freedom.

She is not very involved in the classroom. This
teacher may lack the skills, confidence, or courage to discipline students. (Dunbar, 2004)

Rules are not clearly posted, taught, and
reinforced in the classroom of teacher x, that make it difficult for learners
to follow rules according to the instructor basis.   

Unclear rules and expectations give learners in
this class the chance to trigger problem behavior yet the students may see
their actions as routines, for example, one student was talking freely to her
friends, while the teacher wrote on the board and totally ignore this
misbehavior so other students engage in conversation with her. (Ware, 2017) 

During observation I didn’t notice any
reinforcement to follow classroom rules, teacher x didn’t mention anything
about the importance of rules in her class. During reading session students
answer questions all together no one raises his hand, and when the teacher
could not hear she tells the students that she will give them punishment or
write their names on the behavioral chart for misbehaving. You can remark also
that students can speak Arabic freely in her class, and sometimes the teacher
responds in the Arabic language.

Positive reinforcement is less than the negative
one. When a misbehavior occurs in the class teacher x ignores this misbehavior
or gives much time to problem behavior, so students may engage in misbehavior
to attract the teacher attention and waste time. Routines seem clear to the
students.

Problems

 

The three major problems that occur in teacher’s
x classroom are:

1-Students are disengaged and bored

After
observation, it’s clear that teacher x failed to manage her classroom and
struggled with misbehavior all the time.

During observation Teacher x was correcting a term exam,
she asks students to correct on their papers using a green pen then asks
students to read questions by turn. Students who don’t have mistaken were
totally disengaged, some of them was chatting with his friend, and others were
playing or drawing in their papers.

Teacher x was writing answers on the board without any
explanation, the students who were correcting copy answers without knowing why
their answers were wrong.

At the end of the session, the teacher circulates to
check if the students wrote the right answers, and founds out that some
students didn’t correct their exams, so she asks them to stay at class during
recess time to recopy the correct answers.

 Learners
frequently neglect and ignore behavior as they do not know the importance of
education. Such careless and unmotivated students cause defeat in teachers and
are a real challenge.

2-Students don’t follow rules

During the
reading session, while the teacher was asking questions, you can clearly see kids
that are talking when they shouldn’t be. They can’t seem to follow directions
or pay attention.

When the
teacher asks the question all the student replied at the same time in a
hilarious manner. All students talk without taking turns. First teacher x asked
her students to raise hands before speaking, and she will choose the one who
will answer, still, this scenario did not stop. In this moment the teacher was
upset and wrote the name of students who didn’t follow rules on the behavioral
chart, and in the other hand she praised and thanked who raised their hands and
respect the rules. Furthermore while reading one girl leave her desk and go back
to give her friend a paper, for the first time the teacher totally ignore her
behavior. Two minutes later the same girl turns and asks for a pen in a loud
voice, in this moment the teacher shouted her name and asks her to look in
front of her. As I continue my observation, during reading u can see a lot of
ignorance for rules.  Students can speak
freely with one another, and they can ask questions without taking permission.
Most of the time teacher x ignore the misbehaving of her students.

“Talking out of turn” was one of the major behavior problems which were
mainly referred to learners chatting that disrupts the learning, calling out, without
instructors’ permission. You can see clearly that teacher x struggle from this
problem behavior.

3- Using
of first- language

During all the hours I spent in teacher x classroom, you obviously
remark that students tend to speak more of their native language and less
English. Students seems to be week in English language and there few who were
able to say or use a well-structured sentence.                                                

That’s
why they seemed to depend more on native language to express their ideas more
easily.

 No consequences follow such behavior. More
over teacher sometime respond in Arabic language.

 

 

 

 Great teachers do more than control
their schoolroom; they have their students enthusiastically locked in the
learning. An essential step to accomplishing victory in the classroom is
learning and practicing the art of prevention.

Being proactive teacher requires an honest endeavor
attempt on the part of the teacher to supply a classroom surrounding that permits
learners to be themselves, take risk of exposure, take the chance of
presentation, learn from mistakes, and understand how to take responsibility
for their activeness and feelings. A proactive teacher acts in advance to deal
with expected trouble. He or she controls the anticipated event causing
something to happen rather than reacting after something has happened. A
proactive teacher maintains high standards, sets limits, applies consequences
responsibly and most vitally creates a learning environment that is fun and
empowering. In the other hand, the instructor who makes a caring and trusting climate
with clearly characterized limits always saves laud from students. When
instructor reacts inconsistently to student behavioral challenges or lay on hold
up to capture a student for misbehaving, students begin to doubt their teacher.
At that point either the child maintains a strategic distance from the teacher
or does something negative to get the teacher’s consideration. For each
negative activity by the teacher, there is a rise to an inverse negative
activity by the student. Moreover, for each positive activity students react
appropriately. A proactive teacher values students, expects problems, and sets
up a learning environment that captivates student interest and attention. The
teacher creates the context for student strengthening. Strengthening can best
be defined as giving a student with a sense of confidence, capability,
competence, and self-esteem to meet life’s challenges. (Denti, n.d.)

 

Effective classroom management

 

A basic perspective of classroom management
based on Canter’s theory is educating, practicing and strengthening the
classroom rules and expectations. Each classroom ought to have 3 to 5
positively stated behavioral expectations for the learners. In the event that
there are more than 5 expectations, at that point the learners get irritated.
Having reliable and clear rules ensures that students will prevent problem
behaviors happening due to irregularities.

It’s very important that these rules and
expectations ought to be posted and referred back to during the school year. Learners
should keep realizing the rules during the entire year they need to be
educating the clear expectations, at that point practice them, and at long last
be encouraged for locks in acceptable behaviors. 

Unclear rules and expectations, even of assignments,
can contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in students .It is
vital that all students know what is expected out of the assignment so that
they work to their fullest ability. 
Students who do not know what is expected do not always ask for help. Sometimes
these students just guess or do something completely unrelated to the
assignment. The more students on task in a classroom will decrease problem behaviors.
There will not be time for students to engage in off-task behaviors if they are
continually provided with learning material to be engaged in.                                                     Five
steps to offer students a good understanding of the behavior:

a)     
Give a strategy of reasoning

b)     
Clarify the anticipated behavior

c)     
Show the anticipated behavior

d)    
Practice the anticipated behavior

e)     
Monitor and provide feedback.                                                                                                 

These steps will strengthen the behavior at all
levels so that students are clear of what is expected of them.  Teachers should moreover recognize student
positive behavior four times more than the negative behavior. Positive support
will encourage other students to focus on the positive behaviors during class
because it will be what gets them more acknowledgment. This focus will help to
minimize negative, attention-seeking behaviors in the classroom.

 Transition strategies help students know what
is expected thus increasing the amount of time spent engaging with instruction
within the classroom. Without the practice of routines, time will be spent on
correcting errors within transitions thus reducing the amount of teacher time
spent on instruction. In order to regulate problem behaviors in the classroom,
instructors ought to be effectively administrating by moving around the
classroom and continually checking so that they are mindful of things going in
the room. It is more difficult to engage in misbehaviors when the instructor is
around the students. Physical proximity and nonverbal prompts, while the
instructor is moving around the classroom will moreover help limit the problem behaviors
and keep students engaged and on-task. Instructors that lecture in her classroom,
not only aren’t engaging for all learners but aren’t giving energetic
supervision, to the back of the classroom. 
Without dynamic supervision learners may not complete work and participate
in disruptive behaviors invisible to the instructors. This strategy is based on
Fredric Jones theory.

Organizing
a classroom environment in a way that permits learners to productively get to
materials may increase instructional time. Instructional engaged time has shown
to improve student performance so it is important to make materials organized
and easily accessible.

Materials
ought to be passed out recently before lessons or easily available to learners
so that they can get it independently without disrupting the class. Instructors
should spend the most of their time and efforts on instructing and empowering
the behaviors that they need to see.  If
a lot of time is given to misbehaviors, at that point learners will see that those
are the leading ways to get the attention of the instructors. It is critical to
rapidly and effectively respond to misbehaviors.

One of
the finest ways to keep students engaged and on-task is to correct behaviors before
they even happen. Instructors found that the more positive support that was
given throughout the school day lead to lower problem behaviors in the school. Behaviors
need to be corrected quickly and places emphasis on the positive things going
in the classroom. 

Teachers
should be specific with their praise. The more specific you can be to a
learner, the more they will remember and continue to perform the desired
behavior in the future. Based on Dreikurs theory student’s highest needs is
self-actualization not others will. Teacher can help in creating a democratic
environment, self-determination and encourage the use of encouragement instead
for praise. (Root, 2013)

 It’s important to promote learners to use the
English language and only English. Yet, if learners begin talking in their
native language, move next to them. Ask them direct questions like “do you
have any question?” other idea is to set classroom rules and develop a
punishment system for when they use their native language or offering rewards
for using only English. Always, tells your students that they are in English
class, it must be English language only. (Davis, 2016)

My classroom management theory

As a teacher, I committed to make my classroom
a challenging and a safe place to every one as well as getting to know my
students and interacting with them. I believe that meeting the needs of my
students is a very crucial part of my classroom. I want them to be comfortable
with the other students, also with me, so that there can be meaningful
discussions and interactions. Talking will be frequent in my classroom, along
with group work. I want to encourage all students to participate in class so
that they can learn from each other and from me too. I want to be fair as much
as I can be, so the students trust me. Expectations are well known in my
classroom all my students know that I mean what I say.

I feel that I have a patient and calm attitude
with my class but in the same time I am firm. I think my attitude towards the
students is a little bit authoritative. I want to work with them in a calm
environment so that we can achieve together and they don’t feel like I am
lecturing them. I want to encourage students to learn and keep their interest
by using motivation. My rules are well posted and reinforced during the whole
year.my students clearly know that consequences will follow any misbehavior. (Allen, 1996)                                      

My discipline theory is a mix between the Canter
and Frederic Jones theory. My discipline model find a place under coercive and
reward powers, I use an interventionist strategy, and my discipline is equated
with control.

As Assertive teacher, I make my expectations
clear and well known to students, parents, and administrators. I calmly insist
that learners follow those expectations. They back up their words with
reasonable actions. When learners choose to follow with my guidance, they
receive positive benefits. When they choose to behave in unacceptable ways,
consequences that reasonably accompany the misbehavior will comply. By using a behavioral
chart hanged on the wall each week we have a star student who will be rewarded
for his or her good behavior using certificate or notes to their parents, while
misbehaving students will be punished.

I always set limits. No matter what the
activity is, I need to be aware of what behaviors I want from my learners. Frequently
I instruct the students about what behavior is desired at the beginning of an
activity. Specify what is desired. The expectations should be so clear that any
student can instruct a newcomer as to how they are to behave at any time. I
praise good behavior more frequently than I apply negative consequences to bad
behavior. Verbal acknowledgement is enough, for some situations rewards or
special privileges may be necessary to motivate the continuance of desired
behavior. I never ignore inappropriate behavior that may interfere with my
classroom management instead I stop it with a firm reminder of what is
expected. Using Eye contact is essential if the message is to have full impact.

Some of my discipline strategies are part of Frederick
Jones’s discipline model. During explanation I walk around the room constantly monitoring,
and making sure that all students are fully engaged I try to deal with
individual misbehavior outside the class and create a positive relationship
with my students. I often try not to use verbal cues instead I try to use body
language and respect all students and treat them equally. I praise and
encourage good behavior. I create effective and engaging lessons to adapt all
learning style. (Tauber, 2007)

Conclusion

As a conclusion, I believe that classroom
management refers to the process of organizing and caring out classes so that
learning occurs smoothly and efficiently. Its major purpose is to focus classes
on learning. The attainment of this purpose is depend on the establishment of a
suitable classroom climate. .   

To successfully teach, you must have the circumstances that
make it possible for you to teach and for your pupils to
learn.  Those circumstances do not happen by accident.  You
need to develop a plan to ensure that reasonable circumstances for teaching and
learning will occur. Each teacher, class, subject, and situation is
different.  No plan will fit every situation.

 

Teachers who can draw on a range of responses
when dealing with common classroom misbehaviors are more likely to keep those
students in the classroom, resulting in fewer disruptions to instruction,
enhanced teacher authority, and better learning outcomes for struggling
students. Learners who are engaged in the classroom
instruction are less likely to lose interest. If the learners are excited, and
focused then they have less time to have behavior problems.  It is the teacher’s responsibility to find
ways to guarantee that learners are fully engaged in the activities.

In order to be dynamic teachers, we should create a conducive
learning environment where students can actively engage in classroom activities
and minimize any misbehavior. It is very important to recognize these common
problems, and know the causes of this problem behavior in order to deal with
them, and change the student behavior.