The upward by force and this resulted

The circulatory system is vital and an essential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides and maintains homeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system help maintain homeostasis. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all its complexity and part, and we just focus on one main and essential  part of the car system which makes it as a car we all know about and that is the engine or as we might alternatively call it the “heart of the vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustion occurred as the result of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in the chamber and a small explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and this resulted in the rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and this crank shaft, turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve it purpose as a transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can see why it is called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability to achieve its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system which is unique and special in every other way, and that how we created the system in a car and all other machines. It is magnificently engineered and at the same time, it is fascinating to learn and be able to understand such an existent and the purpose of its creation. Physical activity cannot be separated from human life the cardiovascular system is relatively connected to the physical activity. Fatigue is an appearance respond to the duration of physical activity and this implementation of physical activity is both directly and naturally the body will respond to the quality and quantity of physical activity which is undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand to meet the nutritional need in an effort to compensate the physical activity process and at the same time to maintain the body condition in order to achieve equilibrium, it is also called the optimum physiological response.

The change in frequency of physical activity is base upon the pre and post physical activity and this can be apparent depending on the stat of the individual optimum physical condition. The physiological responses are proportional to the physical activity and the responses are different from one individual to another individual. The physiological response which is observed and showed the difference which is due to the body condition during physical activity which the body are prepared by doing routine exercise or body condition were trained or not trained. And within this essay, I will discuss the finding and present the reason for the difference between a trained athletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in taekwondo base on its anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.

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A simple observation can be seen by just the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test from 2 different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart rate and blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the physical activity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal physiological responses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the optimum physical condition.  The reading of an untrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while 158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for the untrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7 minutes. On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his blood pressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activity shows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained person to restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As we all know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contract and relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure. Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by the trained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the blood pressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressure existed in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulus rhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from the pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the right atrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (it act like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which can affect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation of increasing temperature and other (Guyton and Hall, 2006).

The increases in blood pressure mainly the systole pressure during the post activity is caused by the hormone epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the strengthening of the heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood vessels widening (dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the person condition. If a person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is limited on the dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure can occur.   Also, the sweat that is produced is also an effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of blood and in turn, blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained person has lower blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and valves which are functioning more effective due to his heart has been accustomed to physical activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normal blood pressure quicker compared to the untrained person is because of the trained person blood vessels has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained person has a higher elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.

The blood pressure in relation to the heartbeat is playing a vital role in physical activity and the readiness and the condition of the body and the system of the person especially the cardiovascular system. We have to remember that all is related to maintaining a balance of haemostasis. As we all know the cardiac output is the sum of the stroke volume and heartbeat and from this equation, we acquire the total volume of blood pump by the heart per minute.  And as we can see the number of heartbeats play an important role in producing the total cardiac output. It can easily put as “physical activity increase heart rate and increase stroke volume, and in turn, increase the cardiac output” (Fox.1993 Soekarman.1986 in Akmarawita. 2012). From what we can understand and from test result of blood pressure and heart rate during resting stage that we observe from two sample subject, AS1 and AS2 (which has an athletics lifestyle) both are senior taekwondo student and from two other different subject, NS1 and NS2 (no athletic lifestyle background) both which are from non physically active individual, where it is found that the senior taekwondo student has a lower number of heartbeat compare to the non physically active person. The data show that AS1 register 60 heartbeat/min and AS2 register 69 heartbeat/min while for NS1 register 82 beats/min and NS2 86 beat/min. We can conclude from the result of the test subject of the 2 group of people show that a physically active person has a lower heartbeat due to having a difference in anatomical structure of the heart muscle and the explanation for this is that these group of people has a more elastic and thicker muscle structure and this more effective heart structure which allows the heart to relax and give stronger contraction during each cardiac cycle, and this is made possible due to that they have been trained to perform physical activity routinely. That the reason why athlete of physically active person has a lower heart rate for pre and post physical activity is due to the stronger and more optimize amount of blood that are able to be contracted from the ventricle during it relaxing stage in the cardiac cycle and because of this stronger and more effective amount of blood pump toward the lungs or the head and to the rest of the body causes the baroreceptor to receive the amount of stretch within the carotid sinus and the aorta arch and this sends the signal to the cardio regulatory centre in medulla oblongata which in turn interpreted the data it receives and gives the signal of parasympathetic input to the sinoatrial node (SA node) to lower the amount of heart beat. So in short due to the larger cardiac output of a physically active person that causes more stretch on the baroreceptor, and this causes the brain to increase the parasympathetic input and reduce the sympathetic input of the autonomic nervous system and causes the SA node to reduce the heartbeat and balance out the homeostasis within the system. This is the reason why the athlete or physically active person has a lower resting heartbeat (can even reach as low as 40 beats/min) compare to normal or non physically active person. With considering all the difference in a scenario of physical activity in which the body needs in order to regulate and maintain the blood pressure and blood flow, it is simply amazing and impressive on how the cardiovascular system able to accomplish all of that without even we thinking or noticing about it.