is a growing interest in people living near the coastline that are affected by
calamities. Living near the coastline can have advantages and disadvantages at
the same time. Sibiga (2014) states that sea levels are rising and can dampen
the shorelines or severely impact entire communities and storm surges can erode
property; and often times, waterfront properties are more susceptible to wind
damage. Sibiga (2014) findings confirm that not only can living near the
coastline affect the exterior and impact the grounds of the property, but it
can also cause increased wear and tear on interior furnishings and appliances.
large number of people living near the coastline are easily affected by
typhoons. Not everybody can’t afford and make the use of cement in certain
communities and many homes along the coastline are not built for specific
calamities. Pareno (2017) indicates that storm surge destroys over
200 coastal homes in Zamboanga City. This can be one proof that the problem of
houses living near the coastline should be given attention. The destruction of
houses near the coastline are continuous because the houses are not built for
especially in the Philippines that are living near the coastlines are easily
destroyed because the houses are not strong and not built for strong typhoons.
Sibiga’s (2014) study emphasizes that sea
levels are rising and can dampen the shorelines or severely impact entire
communities; and storm surges can erode property. Creel’s (2003) study
points out that people who live in coastal regions may suffer the cumulative
burden of environmental stress from the activities on and overcrowding of the
coast and from upstream and inland development.
Those who live along
or near the coastline can experience heavy damage to their houses especially
for the houses not built for typhoons. People who live along the coastline have
both advantages and disadvantages. According to Virani (2014), one disadvantage
of living near the coastline is that there is an increased exposure to natural
risk, as sea levels can rise, storm surges can erode shorelines, and properties
are more susceptible to wind damage. Another disadvantage Virani (2014),
mentioned is that waterfront homes may require more maintenance due to the
humidity, dampness and salty air that can impact the exterior of the homes.
The destruction of
houses due to the strong typhoons is now taken seriously by people living near
the coastline as a serious downfall for the country. People discovered
different solutions such as making cheaper cement products that are low
quality. Milman (2015) stated that rebuilding of large public buildings bears
the lessons of the typhoons– new schools have grills on windows; reinforced
concrete beams and bolts in the ceiling that allow the roof to judder a little
in high winds without ripping away. People affected by the calamities have
discovered different innovative ways to solve the problem they are having.
is a need to investigate on the strength capacity and durability of the homes
built near the coastline to identify if those houses are built for strong
typhoons. Virani (2014), claimed that waterfront homes may require more
maintenance due to the humidity, dampness and salty air that can impact the
exterior of the homes. Not only the strength and durability of the house is the
problem when living near the coastline but also the natural disasters that can
occur. According to Alabi (2016), flooding is a regular thing in the riverine
area and can pose a lot of negative effects on people that leave close to the
river bank; and erosion can also occur which causes good part of the soil to be
dragged away into the ocean.
considerable amount of literature has been published on eggshells as an
alternative substitute for limestone in making concrete. Several researches
have focused on the different characteristics and components of eggshells to
determine if eggshells can be used as an alternative or an additive in cement
for making concrete. Various studies have stated that the use of raw materials
such as eggshells could help improve the quality of the cement.
a study in 2014, a researcher found that the use of eggshell waste instead of
natural lime to replace cement in concrete can have benefits like minimizing
the use of cement, conserving natural lime and utilizing waste material
(Yerramala, 2014). Another study also found that the eggshells can also be a
useful material instead of a waste material that they were hurled in many
hundred tons annually had been used in an engineering application (Karthick,
Jeyanthi & Petichiyammal, 2014).
to Kathikeyan et al. (2015) the various characteristics of eggshell powder are
examined and it is allowed to be concrete as a partial replacement of cement.
Different studies about egg shells has identified its different characteristics
that can help prove that eggshells can be a good substitute for limestone.
Gowsika, Sarankokila & Sargunan (2014) emphasize that the egg shell
primarily contains calcium, magnesium carbonate (lime) and protein. Eggshells
contain the same component of limestone which makes it a good alternative in
Christy et al. (2014) emphasized that eggshell ash can either be replaced with
cement to obtain the similar setting time or it can be used as an additive
mixture to accelerate the setting time of cement. Eggshell powder can be used
as an additive or alternative for a normal cement mix. Rawaa (2015) found that
eggshell has a cellulosic structure and it contains amino acids; therefore, it
is expected to be a good bio-sorbent.
et al. (2016) stated that the chemical composition of eggshell powder and
cement were found to be similar. In addition to that, Gowsika, Sarankokila
& Sargunan (2017) indicated that eggshell powder is replaced by 5%, 10% and
15% in addition with the silica fume by 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% of the weight of the
cement. It has been found in further studies that the chemical composition of
eggshell cement mix and normal cement mix is the same which means there is
exactly no difference.
Additionally, Yesuf (2014) stated that
the compressive strength of cement mortar cubes that used egg shells as a
partial substitution of fine aggregates showed an equal and even slightly
higher compressive strength as compared to a cement mortar that does not
contain eggshell. Recent studies have shown that using eggshells as an additive
in making concrete can help improve the strength of the cement. Bandhavya,
Sandeep & Bindhushree (2017) observed that the split tensile strength of
eggshell powder concrete decreases with the addition of eggshell powder; and
this can be increased if the concrete is used with reinforcement. These studies
Vijayvenkatesh (2017) claimed that
eggshell ash achieves good workability, compressive & slit tensile strength
of concrete. Adding eggshells in cement have almost the same qualities a normal
cement mix have. Several studies have proved that eggshells can be used as an
alternative for limestone in cement because of its different characteristics
and components that are the same with the properties of limestone.
these studies have failed to recognize that eggshell cannot be used as a fine
aggregate in the production of concrete at 10% level of replacement. Eggshells
are not 100% an effective alternative for limestone in cement. Studies have
shown that the use of concrete is very large so availability of natural
material is reduced and there is no material which plays the role of this ideal
material. The use of eggshells has not yet been fully proven as a fine
aggregate in making concrete.
A considerable amount of research
has been made on the utilization of eggshells as an alternative for limestone
in cement in making concrete but little research has been seen on the use of
other raw materials as an additive in cement. Moreover, the use of other raw
materials mixed with eggshells has not been made and proven. Other studies seen
proved that adding other raw materials other than eggshells can only reduce the
compressive strength of the concrete. Research has tended to focus on using
only eggshells as an additive rather than using two different types of raw material
as an additive in cement.
However, it is not clear whether the
use of raw materials such as eggshells can be modified to be an alternative for
limestone in cement in making concrete. In spite of these early observations,
the mechanism for the use of eggshells as an alternative or additive has
remained unclear. Recent studies have shown that using eggshells as an additive
can only reduce the compressive strength of the cement. Very little research
has been done on using eggshells as an alternative in cement in making
main purpose of this study is to help the people who cannot afford and make use
of cement in certain communities especially near coastal areas. The aim of this
paper is to study the different characteristics of an eggshell to prove that
eggshells can be used as a substitute for limestone in cement in making
concrete. This study also aims to identify if the qualities of the eggshell can
help improve the strength and durability of the concrete. The purpose here is
to document if cement with eggshell mix is stronger than normal cement mix and
to test if eggshell cement mix has better qualities than the normal cement mix.
research studies the compatibility of eggshells as an additive or alternative
for limestone in cement for making concrete. The strength and durability of the
concrete made with eggshell will be tested to be approved safe for use in
certain coastal areas where houses are deeply affected by typhoons. With the
help of the cement manufacturer and civil engineer, the eggshell cement mix
will be used to help create a cheaper and wise version of a normal cement mix
that has the same qualities. The study will be done for one month.