Understanding Nigerian political system: major hindrances as

Understanding the role of women in the Nigerian
political system: major hindrances as to why women do not engage/contest for
key political offices in Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

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 Final Project:
Research Proposal

 

 

 

 

Daniel Ebiojo Idoko

Girne American University,

MBA (Management Information System) Research Student

 Student Number:
173018001

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Word Count
(excluding Cover Page, References & Appendices): 3,285

BACKGROUUND AND CONTEXT

WOMEN POLITICS

Although section 40 sub section 42 of the Nigerian
constitution provides a platform for men and women equal opportunity to
democratic governance, giving prohibitions to any means of discrimination,
facts on ground do not give credits to this standing. Dating back to 2007
general Nigeria’s election, only 6% of elected political office where women
bringing the ranking of the country compared to the other west African
countries very low, being that the sub-regional average is put at 12% which practically
is a far cry from the 30% recommended in Beijing in 1995. Despite the fact that
women constitute about half the population size of the country and have played
very key roles in the past their participation in formal and informal
structures and processes where decision regarding the use of societal resources
generated by both men and women remains insignificant (Makama, June
2013).
The gleaming issue still is that why are this set bacs still a part of the
political system?

   Over the
centuries feminist has being stereotyped as dependent, submissive, and
conforming making women lack leadership qualities raising the bias of men to
portray leadership as command or control instead of a process of mobilizing and
engaging humans which can bring a new platform for women leadership (Burns, 1978).

The potentials of women to be a part of the
administrative strategic decision makers are high and are sure to bring
positive impact to the system of democratic governance. As in the past from the
birth of the office of the first lady in 17 by the wife of the then Head of
state Babangida till date we have seen several women with great political ambitions women like Ngozi
Okono Iwela (finance minister), Dora Akunyili (drugs enforcement agency) etc.
have all shown positive intents and worked significantly in their various
offices. Nigerian women have
encountered a number of troubles even as venturing into politics. this is as a
result of huge scale marginalization both in balloting physical games and in
allocation of political workplaces. Political violence and the social stigma that
politics is a grimy game is a in addition stumbling block for ladies to turn
out to be actively concerned inside the politics of Nigeria, these are the main
causes for the low illustration of women in Nigeria’s political terrain, extra
often than not, men constitute a larger percentage of the celebration
membership and this tends to affect women in terms of deciding on or electing
candidates for positions (Bakpa, n.d.).

 However, in Nigeria
the extant National gender policy (NGP) recommended 35% affirmative action
instead and sort for more inclusive representation of women with at least 35%
of both elective and political and appointive public service positions
respectively (oluyemi, 2016).
Sources have witnessed that the low response of women in the Nigerian political
system started from the period of pre-colonial masters giving rise to the patriarchal
system which in the long run have made it seem like men are always meant to be
at the forefront and women their subordinates. The
political enfranchisement of women in Nigeria politics seems to have maintained
at the surface a degree of gender equity politically, because it is assumed
that constitutionally there are not obstacles to women’s participation. however,
what precisely is/are the issues and potentialities girls come across in their
quest to take part in politics? women move can be said to were largely
answerable for increase in political participation of women (Agbalajobi,
February 2010).

   The purpose
of this research will be solely to look into the hindrances women encounter
with regard to engaging in political run for offices. By looking at various
political parties using various research procedure like conducting key
informant interviews, distribution of questionnaires to see if truly democracy
is practiced faithfully.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESEARCH
QUESTION & HYPOTHESIS

This research will be involved in four research
questions followed by the hypothesis.

1.     WHY IS IT DIFFICULT FOR WOMEN TO
ENGAGE IN POLITICS AS ACTIVE PARTICIPANTS?

The null hypothesis, in this case, would be that they are not given
enough support from this political parties to engage as active as their male
counterparts which entail leads to a pullback or discourages their efforts.

 

2.     IT THE PRACTICE OF DEMOCRACY TRULY A PARTNERSHIP OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITY BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN?

The null hypothesis, in this case, could be that since the pre-colonial era the issue of patriarchy has
deeply eaten into the political system to an extent to which we as men no
longer see women as equal but as subordinates. My expectation here will be to
see that a substantial percentage of patriarchy still very much exist or
practiced.

 

3.     WHAT OPPORTUNITY
DO WOMEN HAVE AS THEY GROW IN THEIR POLITICAL
CAREER IN THIS PARTIES?

The null hypothesis, in this case, would be that despite the claims
of gender equality, due to the presence of “internal democracy” still amongst
the party members and officials we see that women are still sidelines I expect
to see that most of their career growth is cut short due to such reasons.

 

4.     WHAT ARE THE STRATEGIES THAT WOMEN
NEED TO IMBIBE OR GET ACCUSTOMED TO IN OTHER REACH A LEVEL PLAYING GROUND WITH THEIR
MALE COUNTERPARTS TO ATTAIN SUCH KEY POSITIONS?

The null hypothesis here would be
that a grassroots reformation strategy
from the family schools and culture to break the barrier which are nurtured
from very young age i.e encouraging children despite their gender to see
themselves as people of same relevance to the society at large bearing in mind
being able to give equal support at any point in time.

 

In addition to this research /study
we will also be considering the following issues and questions:

·       
As women in various political parties will
be approached to fill up questionnaires, personally the researcher would want
to know or put into account if leadership education was something which was
being taught to them and if not, how did they find a way to break through this
“GLASS CEILING”.

·       
Also, the study will like to know what
their male counterparts feel about the issue of women putting out that they do
not get enough support as them and their advice to women?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

     over the past years there has been a serious deliberation on the issue regarding
women leadership however from colonialism came the point of women’s autonomy
and traditional positions. The British most times found women autonomous, they
instituted a “Victorian framework” which circumscribed making them loose
autonomist nature giving birth to patriarchal system, for example looking at
the northern part of Nigeria colonialism encouraged expansion of Islamic ideals
making them exclude women from politics and other public affairs (Awomolo,
1997) (sue Ellen
Charlton, 1989).
This patriarchal system which has eaten up virtually into every practices, system, and
sector in Nigeria bringing up a structure
of gender inequality and many other negative
effects on the economical and
socio-cultural values of the country. On the surface it looks like gender has
no significant role and that the country is presumably gender neutral, and
potential women are equal to their competitors; however, this remains an
untapped dream of liberal pluralist (sue Ellen Charlton, 1989) cited in (Awomolo, 1997).

     Nature of Politics in Nigeria In Nigerian
the nature of politics is characterized by way of violence, it’s miles said to
be very violent for those with the hearts and minds of stone, can face up to
such violence. we’ve witnessed and heard approximately violence that transpires
each election season, a woman, certainly would now not need to get worried in
which includes she has lots to lose, health wise and beauty clever. If maximum
ladies hold to assume this manner, there is no way any female might need to
take part in politics or allow any family
member of hers to take part. there are numerous extra elements not point out,
but it’s miles believed that the above elements are principal factors hindering
women political participation, however it is time to do so by calling on all
girls to learn the way to take part in politics (neighborhood, nation, countrywide or international levels) (Amu, 2016).

     Women’s
engagement in politics in Nigeria is essential as it is a known fact that no
country can make a fast growth when one half of the country’s population are under-represented, undermined economically and
potentially weak, while the other half is economically dominant and politically
powerful. That which is been said is that women lack the competence and the
right amount of sophistication to hold themselves against their male opponents
and have failed to key into the major agendas of the country. Looking from the
side of this political parties, they do have manifestos from their constitution
stating that both men and women have equal and full support from the party,
manifestos of some of this parties also affirm in favor of men example: APC
(all progressive party) one of the major political parties in Nigeria, section
16. In Nigeria, a number of women lack
effective energy or have an impact on, in particular in federal authorities’
structure.  Many of them do no longer
have the important talents to provide ideas efficiently. lack of understanding
of political participation way insufficient contribution to public affairs and
girls’ empowerment.  when women are given
the possibility of participation in leadership, they will understand those troubles
and cope with them to accommodate the complete
participation of ladies in management in any respect degrees of the arms
of government (Akokuwebe, July 2015).

 

     Increasing
representation in population and economic positions has been recognized as a
developmental goal giving big ups to the Beijing platform for the recommendation of the 30% target for women in
National parliament which was implemented and should have had a positive impact, if it was fully implemented (Amadi, 2007).

     From
the table below, it is clear that all parts of the world, women have been
historically discriminated against electoral issues. the good news is that
marginalization can be addressed through concerted efforts. Thus, some
countries now have female heads of state such as Germany and Liberia (Igbuzor,
2011)

Table: DEMOCRATIZATION OF
SUFFRAGE IN SELECTED COUNTRIES

COUNTRY

MALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

FEMALE UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE

AUSTRALIA

1903

1908

CANADA

1915/18

1920

GREAT
BRITHIAN

1877

1928

SWEDEN

1923

1921

PORTUGAL

1911

1974

JAPAN

1918/19

1947

NIGERIA

1922

1979

FRANCE

1869/71

1946

ITALY

1925

1940

 

SOURCE: OTIVE IGUZO R, REDEFINING WINNING: WOMENS EMERGENCE
IN POLITICAL LEADERSHIP POSITIONS.

Gender roles are
orchestrated by gender inequality. Gender roles are behavioral sports related
to sexes in a social or interpersonal relationship in a selected subculture. Gender
norms are reinforced in defining masculine and feminine identities (Azuh, 2014). Seeing
the issue of marginalization in the past and how efforts have been made to
eliminate it the percentage rate of change has not been really significant from
a statistical point of view/perspective. Nigerian
women had been marginalized in political participation no matter the crucial
social and financial roles they’ve played over time.  African women specially the ones from Nigeria
in reaction to the possibilities created by means of industrial capitalism and
globalization commenced looking for to persuade the dispensation of right in
step with their articulated pursuits, needs and issues as fundamental motives
for political participation as a way to create and make certain sustainable
democratic governance in Nigeria (Odi, 2012). Affirmative actions have been taken
to remove continuous setbacks/obstacles
to political progress which will entail reducing
historical imbalance. Also, several
empowerment forums and mass mobilization campaigns have been initiated to break
tradition and stereotypes of women’s role. In spite of several of some of this strategy that has been initiated to which Nigeria is a signatory, they are still
flashing issues of gender inequality at all levels of decision making (oluyemi,
2016).

 

 

SIGNIFICANCE
OF THIS STUDY

     The result
of this study will be reverberated to the benefit of Nigeria at large and the
political parties, being that women play a vital role in the society and
considering the fact that they do constitute about half the population of the
country. Grassroot education for kids of
different genders to see themselves as equal to fit into any position of their
choice, here breaking the barrier of cultural / family effect. Furthermore, this
will also erase the issues of internal democracy within each political party henceforth suppressing the issue of women
working /striving 10 times more to run on an equal
level playing ground as their male counterparts. The deepening of democracy and democratic
establishments is inevitably leading to the gradual revision of laws and
provisions which can be antithetical to the hobby of ladies. This improvement and
research is similarly galvanized via the function of transnational
establishments and corporations in creating consciousness and advocacy for
increased position for women in country wide improvement specifically because
it affects political participation. those efforts have yielded a variety of
effective effects. in many quarters the hitherto current prejudices and
discrimination in opposition to ladies in public affairs is steadily ebbing as
rising societal establishments are been transformed to formally accord ladies
equal privilege and standing with guys in step with constitutional provisions (Ngara, 2013).

The research will equally
be bene?cial to NGOs, students and authorities’ businesses on gender-related problems together with the Inter-parliamentary Union, United
international locations’ department for the advancement of women (DAW)
Committee for the removal of all form of Discrimination against ladies (CEDAW)
as it will aid them in their search for
gender equality. similarly, the tips and pointers so as to be pro?ered on this observertation will assist enhance the extent
of political participation of women in Nigeria. (STELLA, 2015)

     Its
going to be very much beneficial to the aspiring youths who want to get
involved in politics when women who have acquired some previous positions in
the government initiate some mentoring programs which will prepare them for all
obstacles keeping them competent, sophisticated and most importantly motivated enough
keying them into the major agendas of the country for attracting more female
and male supporters. For the researcher, this study will help him/her
understand the areas which are lacking in the aspect of women politics in
Nigeria, as he/she is aspiring to venture into politics someday, and seeing
into some missing issues concerning this topic. Thus, some time later in future new theories on how this issue will be
solved may be uncovered (Regoniel, 2015)

 

METHODS

RESEARCH
METHODS, DESIGN AND METHODS

     First of
all, all political potential parties and empowerment groups will be identified (Aydinel,
2015).

     This
research will involve the two (2) major parties in Nigeria and for the empowerment
groups, a random selection will be done
selecting just two (2) groups giving them all an equal opportunity to be
selected.

     In this study, the researcher
will be using a cross-sectional design to survey the various political parties
and empowerment groups. This will be done at a period near to the general
election of the country when all parties are active to make sure that the
sample size is equally distributed, and all members available. Five (5) women
and five (5) men are selected from both political parties making a total of ten
(10) persons per political party. The research will be more exploratory being
that we need to get detailed information/ data and feedbacks from our samples. Also from the sample a key informant interview will be
scheduled and conducted for some specific persons from the various sample size. The interview will be a semi-structured
interview, with more open-ended questions so as to get detailed required
information from the interviewee. A
self-administered questionnaire will be distributed randomly to ten (10) women
for the various empowerment groups. The questions will be slightly open-ended
also in other for sample size to say how the truly feel about this issue. From
the party sample size, a case narrative will be carried out with several
successful women who have been able to break major boundaries they have faced
and whose story can illuminate how prospects will navigate through political,
public and personal hindrances and adopt best practices that can promote gender
stability and equality.

 

 

RESEARCH
ETHICS

The researcher has to ensure that he/she gets
appropriate consent signed from respondent as a surety of their understanding and
acceptance to be involved in this study ensuring that he/she is not being
forced but get involved at their own free will. Also, required approval from
the sample area (political parties) is relevant to ensure that they are no mix up or denials given on attempt to conduct exercise/study. Questionnaires which are
distributed to sample will be shared or given to those who are willing and feel
they want to be part of the study. Lastly
it is imperative that the evaluation process does not in any way harm
(unintended or otherwise) participants.

 

 

CONCLUSION

     Major hindrances as to why women do not
engage/contest for key political offices in Nigeria was
a bit tasking to find articles that are
related to this topic is that most of the
article online where mostly generalizing the political system of Governance
while I was researching from the aspect of the political parties and
empowerment groups. This research will also improve motivation for women as
they will be able to understand the
hindrances they face and how to overcome them also for the younger generation,
they will be opportune to get leadership and empowerment education as they grow without the issue of patriarchy and
elimination of culture. By the development of this
proposal we will begin to see gradual positive results politically and
economically in the nearest future.

      

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE LIST
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