While order to meets the new needs

While vocational education and training school is essential for the adult education system, people who are already working in company or industry and have no time to attend to these training schools need other accesses to receive new job-related knowledge and skills in order to meets the new needs of the changing labour market. In nowadays workplace, most of medium and large enterprises offer professional training to employees. However, for those small medium enterprises (SME) that are limited on funding and under-invest, the nations’ governments and adult education departments should pay more attention to SME employees. Taking Korea for instance, According to Desjardins, Melo and Lee, 2016, the Korean government has four well-developed initiatives aimed directly at SME workers. Firstly, in 2003, it launched an SME Training Consortium Programme in 2003 (which renamed as Consortium for HRD Ability Magnified Programme CHAMP in 2012). As of 2013, 159 training consortia were in operation (CHAMP 2014). The consortia are stakeholder-based and involve various enterprises, higher education institutions, public and private education providers and relevant SMEs as key actors. Stakeholders work together to identify training needs, develop training programs, and manage administrative tasks to receive public subsidies (Kis and Park 2012). Consortia can receive subsidies that cover all costs for facilities and personnel. By 2012, the initiative had grown to over 271,000 employees and nearly 115,000 SMEs (MOEL 2013). Second, the Korean government provides subsidies for targeted advanced training programs. Qualified employees are trained free of charge for training at vocational training institutions equipped with modern facilities and equipment, and their employer receive part of their labor costs. The number of applicants has risen from about 19,000 in 2006 to around 38,000 in 2012 (MOEL 2013). Third, since 2006, the Government has also provided subsidies for organized learning in SMEs. The support is available for one year at a time and can be extended for up to three years based on the results. In 2010, 315 SMEs received subsidies (HRDSK 2013). Finally, the government provide subsidies – for SME workers and non-regular workers – for self-directed learning through the Job Upgrading and Maturing Programme. This learning includes module-based training on weekends or weeknights to facilitate mobility. In 2010, more than 57,000 workers had their costs covered entirely for this program.